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AGRICULTURE

CultivationLivestock farmingPoultry farmingCultivation of grain

  • Ozone in hydroponics applications

    What is hydroponics?

    Hydroponics is a method for growing plants in a solution of water and fertilizers. The term comes from two words of Greek origin – “hydro” meaning “water” and “ponics” from the word “geoponic,” meaning “of or relating to agriculture or farming.”

    Liquid hydroponic systems use nothing to support the plant roots, while aggregate systems employ some kind of inert, soil-less growing medium (such as baked clay stone, rockwool, coconut fiber, etc.). Whether liquid or aggregate, water is the lifeline; all essential nutrients are carried to the plants by water. To provide temperature control and to minimize evaporative water loss and pest infestation, most hydroponic operations are enclosed in greenhouses.

    Some advantages to hydroponic farming:

    • Plants mature more rapidly (up to 30 percent) – because root systems are smaller;
    • Higher density planting – minimizes use of land area;
    • Allows for production in areas where suitable soil does not exist;
    • Indifference to temperature/seasons;
    • More efficient use of water and fertilizers; and
    • No weeds or soil-borne diseases and pests.

    Disadvantages include the energy costs associated with heating, cooling and lighting the greenhouses, and the high skill level required to manage a successful hydroponic operation. Growth of hydroponic farming in the United States has been slow since interest in the technology for commercial use surfaced in the mid-1920s.

    Developments in new production techniques and improved materials have since caused only temporary surges in its acceptance. However, growers are once again establishing hydroponic farms, driven at least in part by environmental concerns for groundwater pollution from nutrient wastes and soil sterilizers.

    Why ozone?

    The grower’s water treatment dealer suggested the use of ozone technology because it could economically resolve a number of the treatment challenges posed by the source water. Sixty ppm of hydrogen sulfide represented a serious problem in itself, and it could be traced to the root of other troubles. For example, water with high levels of hydrogen sulfide is oxygen-deficient, providing favorable conditions for the growth of anaerobic bacteria. Also, water with low dissolved oxygencontent does not allow for vigorous plant growth. Ozone is effective for removing hydrogen sulfide without leaving chemical byproducts. At the same time, the dealer knew ozone could raise the ORP level of the water and provide disinfection through oxidation of organic contaminants. Also, the use of an oxygen-fed ozone system would introduce higher levels of dissolved oxygen into the water. In addition to reducing the hydrogen sulfide level, the dissolved oxygen would help promote plant health and inhibit the proliferation of some waterborne anaerobic bacteria.

    From the September 2002 edition of Water Technology magazine.

  • Agriculture products and packing materials treatment

    Uses For Ozone In Treating Agricultural Products And Foods

    Microorganisms are present everywhere food is present and handled, from the fields in which agricultural crops are planted and raised to harvest, animal breeding and rearing houses to the facilities that process crops and animals, to packaging and food storage plants. Control of microorganisms, particularly pathogenic microorganisms (those that cause diseases in humans and animals), is important at all stages. Strong measures are necessary for microorganism control.

    Classical chemical control methods based on chlorine or bromine compounds are effective for controlling microorganisms, but their use can result in halogenated byproducts being formed and these subsequently can be incorporated into the food product itself. Ozone, consisting only of oxygen atoms, is one of the strongest disinfectants available, and does not form halogenated byproducts. Additionally, ozone can be applied in the gas as well as aqueous phases, providing additional processing benefits. Uniquely, combining ozone with other materials (hydrogen peroxide or ultraviolet radiation) produces the very reactive intermediate, hydroxyl free radical, which is a stronger oxidizing agent than is ozone itself Ozone is both a strong oxidizing agent as well as a strong disinfectant. Because of this, both benefits (oxidation and disinfection) can be achieved during the single step of ozonation. When considering oxidation, however, one also must recognize that not all oxidizable substances can be totally destroyed even by ozone, the strongest oxidant and disinfectant commercially available. In most cases, oxidation reactions proceed through intermediate stages, arriving at CO2 and water only when the pollutant is provided with a sufficient concentration of ozone for a sufficient period of tirne to allow complete oxidation (mineralization).

    This point is very important in treating foods, which are organic in nature, with ozone. The indiscriminate over-use of ozone to control microorganisms can easily partially oxidize surface organic materials on the food being treated, and can change the nature of those food surfaces. The key to successful application of ozone for contacting foods is to add sufficient ozone to allow it to accomplish its intended purpose(s), but not enough to cause damage to the food itself. This requires testing and development of ozonation conditions to apply to specific food products.

    Water is an essential processing agent in agriculture and food processing. It can be used in many instances to carry the ozone. Since water contacts foods, it is critical that it be as clean as possible. Due to the ever-rising costs of treating potable water, increasing economic pressure is being placed on reuse of processing water in food and agriculture applications. Ozone has a long and proven history of application in treating water and wastewater, and thus has many potential applications in agriculture and food processing facilities. Water containing ozone is being used in many food processing plants currently to spray or wash food products, and to wash processing and storage equipment. Many agricultural products are stored after harvest, prior to packaging and sale. Gas phase ozone, applied properly with attention to concentration, relative humidity, and exposure times, can maintain low microorganism and insect levels in/on the product(s) during such storage, thus increasing storage life while maintaining high product quality -- resulting in less product loss during storage.

    International Ozone Association, www.io3a.org

  • Livestock drinking water and air treatment with ozone

    Ozone air and water treatment capabilities render it very useful for several applications found in farming:

    • Ozone can be used to treat the livestock drinking water
    • Ozone is used to keep the livestock drinking water distribution network clean, preventing clogging of drinking nipples assuring good hydration of all animals
    • Wastewater produced by livestock can be treated to meet discharge requirements or to reuse the water for irrigation
    • Ozone can be used to reduce ammonia levels in hog and broiler houses
    • Ozone can be used to abate odours produced by livestock
    • Ozone can be used to treat the air in chicken houses ensuring a healthy, disease-free environment
    • Ozone can be used in the post-harvest storage of crops

  • Postharvest desinfection of edible horticultural crops

    Ozone applications for Postharvest desinfection of edible horticultural crops

    Although much of the stimulation of interest in ozone (O3) as a water and cold storage disinfectant and general treatment for extending shelf life has been based on empirical information and testimonials, an increasing body of recent scientific literature has better defined the benefits and limitations of gaseous and aqueous ozonation in postharvest applications on edible horticultural crops.

    Three key events have stimulated an even higher level of interest in postharvest applications of ozone for decay control and as a sanitizer against human pathogens:

    • broader consumer demand for enhanced availability of fresh produce of the highest standard in quality, nutritional value, and safety;
    • concern, borne of media and public attention, about known or potential human health and negative environmental impacts of chlorinated disinfectant by-products;
    • regulatory acceptance that ozone has been affirmed to qualify for Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status as a food-processing aide, and the listing of ozone as compliant (no restrictions or concerns) with EPA Disinfection by Products Rule.

    Ozone-based treatment of fresh vegetables and fruits had been used in the postharvest handling industry for decades. However, relatively few produce handlers and processors have used ozone for water disinfection, surface sanitation, cold room air treatment, and other postharvest applications such as final rinses of whole, trimmedin-the-field, peeled, or minimally processed produce. Until GRAS status was affirmed, the legality of ozone contact with food was always an area of regulatory uncertainty.

    By regulation, ozonation treatment of fresh produce and all related handling and applications must be conducted in a manner consistent with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). Specifically, ozone has been approved for use under GMP, meaning “exposure of foods to sufficient ozone (concentrations and times of exposure) to accomplish its intended purpose.” This translates to the minimum exposure of fruits and vegetables to that dose of ozone necessary to provide the target antimicrobial benefits on specific edible horticultural commodities.

    Ozone applications for decay and spoilage control have been closely paralleled, more recently, by investigations of human pathogen disinfection in water and on equipment, packing surfaces, returnable plastic containers and bins, and transport vehicles. As with postharvest plant pathogens, eliminating bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella spp., E. coli O157:H7, and Shigella spp. is relatively easy in ‘clean’ water and becomes increasingly more difficult in water of complex quality, on the surface of produce, or with more tolerant spore-forming or parasitic pathogens. Gaseous ozone treatment of cold rooms has been reported to be effective in significantly reducing Listeria monocytogenes.In general, ozone treatments in postharvest storage have the greatest economic benefit when stored produce will be sorted prior to shipment or repacked following distribution and short-term storage to remove decayed produce.

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

    Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources

  • Meat and packing materials treatment

    Effectiveness against Airborne Micro-organisms

    Extensive research has been conducted by Ozone Industries in conjunction with the Food Research and Consultancy Unit at the University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC) into the affect of ozone on airborne micro-organisms. These trials showed that with an airborne bacteria and using ozone concentrations of between 0.05 ppm and 2 ppm reductions in viable bacteria of between 99% and 99.99% could be achieved within 60 minutes.

    Effectiveness against Micro-organisms on Surfaces

    During the trials at UWIC it was also demonstrated, using stainless steel coupons, that the effective disinfection of surfaces, including the normally difficult to clean exposed undersides, could be achieved within an hour using ozone levels of 2 ppm. It was also shown that during these experiments that very effective disinfection could still be achieved even when the stainless steel coupon had not been subjected to any cleaning and could be considered to be dirty.

    Other work on surfaces has shown that ozone is similarly effective across a wide range of micro-organisms including Escherichia Coli, Serratia Liquefacens, Enterococcus Hirae, Candida Albicans, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Staphylacoccus Aureaus, Listeria Innocua, Aspergillus Niger, Saccharomyces Cerevisae and Rhodotorula Rubra. Percentage reductions ranging from 97% up to 99.999% have been demonstrated using 2ppm of ozone for between 1 and 4 hours with gram negative bacteria such as E. Coli being more sensitive to ozone than gram positive ones such as S. Aureas. Yeasts (Saccharomyces Cerevisae, Rhodotorula Rubra) and mould (Aspergillus Niger) were found to be the most resistant to ozone probably due to the thick cell walls of these organisms presenting a more effective barrier to the initial penetration of the gas.

    Affect of Ozone on Insect Infestation

    It has also been noticed in the field that regular ozone treatment in cheese stores eliminates mite damage although the actual causal mechanism of this effect is still unclear. There are several anecdotal field reports of mites seeking refuge away from the ozone by entering the interstice between the cheese and the shelf that the ozone cannot penetrate where previously they have occupied all surfaces. While these reports are so far uncorroborated scientifically the field results being demonstrated by users are impressive. These same users are increasingly confident that they will be able to completely abandon the use of chemical fumigants such as methyl bromide in their cheese stores by the regular use of ozone.

    There are three species of mite that attack cheese, the Flour Mite (Acarus Siro), the Cheese Mite (Tyrophagus Casei) and the Mould Mite (Tyrophagus Putrescentiae). The Flour Mite is the commonest mite to infest a wide range of foodstuffs, including cheese, and it can be harmful if consumed in any quantity by humans or animals. It has the unusual characteristic of a hypopus stage in its development during which it becomes almost immobile, grows suckers with which it attaches itself to surfaces and its body wall hardens. During this phase of its life cycle it becomes very much more resistant to insecticides and other adverse conditions such as surface cleaning. It is likely that this characteristic is what makes this particular mite so hard to eradicate. It thrives at 28 0C and 90% RH but becomes inactive below 17 0C and 65% RH.

    Cheese mites are larger than flour mites, very common and just as cosmopolitan in their diet although are particularly known for the holes that they gnaw in cheese leaving behind a grey dust made of their dead bodies, cast skins and faeces that is a recognised cause of dermatitis amongst cheese industry workers. They like the cool temperatures and high humidity generally associated with cheese storage and can even survive refrigeration but they do however lack the hypopus stage of the flour mite in their development that makes them easier to manage.

    Finally there is the Mould mite that unlike either of the others two does not appear to be injurious to health but can be responsible for causing tremendous losses within foodstuffs. It is very common although as its name implies it is only found in numbers where mould and fungi will flourish such as cheese stores.

    The regular use of ozone to eliminate mould would clearly have a beneficial impact on the presence of the mould mite by removing what is presumably its food source. Exactly how ozone deters the other two species is less clear but the presence or lack of mould may play an important part and more research is needed.

    Ozone Industries Ltd. 2003

  • Incubator desinfection with ozone

    OZONE USE IN THE POULTRY INDUSTRY

    Ozone as an air treatment is used in the poultry industry, from the storage and incubation of eggs, to the breeding of healthy birds, as well as for effective processing, storage and transport of poultry and meat products. Ozonated water is used to wash and sterilize meat and equipment.

    The most important advantage of using ozone is that it quicker and more reactive and leaves no chemical residue, and even after high concentrations have been used to disinfect an area, it is immediately possible for staff to work in that area without a health risk.

    EFFICACY REVIEW

    1. It has been proven that ozone is a highly effective oxidant, which kills bacteria on the surfaces of meat and equipment.

    2. Ozone is more effective than other air disinfecting systems such as chemical fogging and UV light.

    3. Tests on E. coli, L.Pneuniophila, Stapharaeus, MRSA, Shigella sp and Salmonella arizonae show that ozone gas is a highly anti-bacterial agent, with more than 90% kill rates after 40 minutes, 99.9% kill rates after 60 minutes and 100% kill rates after 2 hours.

    4. Ozonated water has shown to kill instantly more than 5 log units of Salmonella typhirium and Escherichia coli cells, as well as 4,5 log units of Candida albicans and Zygosaccraomyces bailli.

    5. Ozonated water is effective as a disinfectant for poultry carcasses and chill water, with a greater than 90% kill rate of micro-organisms washed from the carcasses and an increase in light transmission of the treated processed water.

    6. The use of the ozonated water to wash carcasses results in no significant loss of colour or of flavour.

    7. The use of ozone during refrigerated storage of poultry has a pronounced effect on flora causing deteriorations and consequently prolongs the useful life of poultry in the refrigerated storage.

    8. Evidence shows that strains of Staphylococcus Aureus colonise on defeathering machinery have become endemic with poultry processing plants, and become resistant to normal cleaning and disinfecting, including chlorine.(No resistance build-up to ozone).

    CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF OZONE

    1. Ozone is used to disinfect incubation rooms and chambers, eliminate use of chemicals which cause a toxic build-up on the egg shell surfaces and weaken the immune system of the birds, and keeping the air which is fed into the incubators free from bacteria and viruses.

    2. Ozonated water is more effective, faster and stronger than chlorinated water, killing all bacteria and viruses, including those that have become resistant to chlorine and conventional cleaning methods. There is no resistance build-up to ozone.

    3. Use it in staff washrooms, in order to disinfect staff clothing and shoes over night, and to keep bacteria levels down during the day.

    4. To disinfect equipment, machinery and packaging materials overnight, and to keep bacteria levels in the area low during the day.

    5. In the refrigerated storage of poultry products to increase the shelf life of the meat and prevent spoilage.

    6. In growing birds, ozone in the pens as a gas reduces the amount of bacteria that they are exposed to thus reducing the spread of infection and viruses thereby increasing their health and even weight by up to 18% and improving their skin colour.

    7. For the disinfecting of sheds as an alternative to formaldehyde, because ozone is more effective than formaldehyde in disinfecting and requires no dormant period in which the sheds have to remain evacuated. Almost immediately after disinfecting by ozone at high concentrations, the shed is ventilated and can be inhabited by the animals and staff safely. Unlike formaldehyde, Ozone is non-carcinogenic.

    8. Ozone oxidizes ammoniacal gases, methane and carbon dioxide, creating a healthier environment for the animals and staff.

    9. Hatching hens which are kept in ozonized conditions show an increase in the amount of eggs they lay, and a stronger consistency of the egg shell, because of the corresponding decrease in pathogenic illness and prevention of a toxic build up of disinfectant chemicals.

    BENEFITS OF OZONE FOR POULTRY DRINKING WATER

    Animal Performance

    1. Reduced waterborne pathogens

    2 Accelerated weight gain

    3. Improved feed conversion

    4. Improved layer output

    5. No escalation in pathogen resistance (as seen with chlorine)

    6. Increased dissolved oxygen increases

    7. Improve animal’s resilience to heat

    Water Quality

    1. Non Toxic

    2. Oxidizes dissolved minerals (iron, manganese, hydrogen sulphide, etc.)

    3. Reduces “fouling”

    4. Eliminates chemical storage/residual

    Additional Benefits

    Chemical savings per broodOzone reduces or eliminates the need for chlorine
    Filter cleaning and maintenanceOzone reduces or eliminates build-up of slime and debris
    Nipple drinker cleaningOzone reduces or eliminates calcified debris build-up
    Chlorine system maintenanceOzone eliminates need for chlorine
    Chlorine system filter replacementOzone increases useful filter life
    Chemical handling/storageOzone eliminates need for chlorine
    Heat ToleranceIncreased dissolved oxygen in water improves bird tolerance to heat

  • Poultry farm air and water treatment

    OZONE USE IN THE POULTRY INDUSTRY

    Ozone as an air treatment is used in the poultry industry, from the storage and incubation of eggs, to the breeding of healthy birds, as well as for effective processing, storage and transport of poultry and meat products. Ozonated water is used to wash and sterilize meat and equipment.

    The most important advantage of using ozone is that it quicker and more reactive and leaves no chemical residue, and even after high concentrations have been used to disinfect an area, it is immediately possible for staff to work in that area without a health risk.

    EFFICACY REVIEW

    1. It has been proven that ozone is a highly effective oxidant, which kills bacteria on the surfaces of meat and equipment.

    2. Ozone is more effective than other air disinfecting systems such as chemical fogging and UV light.

    3. Tests on E. coli, L.Pneuniophila, Stapharaeus, MRSA, Shigella sp and Salmonella arizonae show that ozone gas is a highly anti-bacterial agent, with more than 90% kill rates after 40 minutes, 99.9% kill rates after 60 minutes and 100% kill rates after 2 hours.

    4. Ozonated water has shown to kill instantly more than 5 log units of Salmonella typhirium and Escherichia coli cells, as well as 4,5 log units of Candida albicans and Zygosaccraomyces bailli.

    5. Ozonated water is effective as a disinfectant for poultry carcasses and chill water, with a greater than 90% kill rate of micro-organisms washed from the carcasses and an increase in light transmission of the treated processed water.

    6. The use of the ozonated water to wash carcasses results in no significant loss of colour or of flavour.

    7. The use of ozone during refrigerated storage of poultry has a pronounced effect on flora causing deteriorations and consequently prolongs the useful life of poultry in the refrigerated storage.

    8. Evidence shows that strains of Staphylococcus Aureus colonise on defeathering machinery have become endemic with poultry processing plants, and become resistant to normal cleaning and disinfecting, including chlorine.(No resistance build-up to ozone).

    CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF OZONE

    1. Ozone is used to disinfect incubation rooms and chambers, eliminate use of chemicals which cause a toxic build-up on the egg shell surfaces and weaken the immune system of the birds, and keeping the air which is fed into the incubators free from bacteria and viruses.

    2. Ozonated water is more effective, faster and stronger than chlorinated water, killing all bacteria and viruses, including those that have become resistant to chlorine and conventional cleaning methods. There is no resistance build-up to ozone.

    3. Use it in staff washrooms, in order to disinfect staff clothing and shoes over night, and to keep bacteria levels down during the day.

    4. To disinfect equipment, machinery and packaging materials overnight, and to keep bacteria levels in the area low during the day.

    5. In the refrigerated storage of poultry products to increase the shelf life of the meat and prevent spoilage.

    6. In growing birds, ozone in the pens as a gas reduces the amount of bacteria that they are exposed to thus reducing the spread of infection and viruses thereby increasing their health and even weight by up to 18% and improving their skin colour.

    7. For the disinfecting of sheds as an alternative to formaldehyde, because ozone is more effective than formaldehyde in disinfecting and requires no dormant period in which the sheds have to remain evacuated. Almost immediately after disinfecting by ozone at high concentrations, the shed is ventilated and can be inhabited by the animals and staff safely. Unlike formaldehyde, Ozone is non-carcinogenic.

    8. Ozone oxidizes ammoniacal gases, methane and carbon dioxide, creating a healthier environment for the animals and staff.

    9. Hatching hens which are kept in ozonized conditions show an increase in the amount of eggs they lay, and a stronger consistency of the egg shell, because of the corresponding decrease in pathogenic illness and prevention of a toxic build up of disinfectant chemicals.

    BENEFITS OF OZONE FOR POULTRY DRINKING WATER

    Animal Performance

    1. Reduced waterborne pathogens

    2 Accelerated weight gain

    3. Improved feed conversion

    4. Improved layer output

    5. No escalation in pathogen resistance (as seen with chlorine)

    6. Increased dissolved oxygen increases

    7. Improve animal’s resilience to heat

    Water Quality

    1. Non Toxic

    2. Oxidizes dissolved minerals (iron, manganese, hydrogen sulphide, etc.)

    3. Reduces “fouling”

    4. Eliminates chemical storage/residual

    Additional Benefits

    Chemical savings per broodOzone reduces or eliminates the need for chlorine
    Filter cleaning and maintenanceOzone reduces or eliminates build-up of slime and debris
    Nipple drinker cleaningOzone reduces or eliminates calcified debris build-up
    Chlorine system maintenanceOzone eliminates need for chlorine
    Chlorine system filter replacementOzone increases useful filter life
    Chemical handling/storageOzone eliminates need for chlorine
    Heat ToleranceIncreased dissolved oxygen in water improves bird tolerance to heat

  • Feed crops treatment

    OZONE USE IN THE POULTRY INDUSTRY

    Ozone as an air treatment is used in the poultry industry, from the storage and incubation of eggs, to the breeding of healthy birds, as well as for effective processing, storage and transport of poultry and meat products. Ozonated water is used to wash and sterilize meat and equipment.

    The most important advantage of using ozone is that it quicker and more reactive and leaves no chemical residue, and even after high concentrations have been used to disinfect an area, it is immediately possible for staff to work in that area without a health risk.

    EFFICACY REVIEW

    1. It has been proven that ozone is a highly effective oxidant, which kills bacteria on the surfaces of meat and equipment.

    2. Ozone is more effective than other air disinfecting systems such as chemical fogging and UV light.

    3. Tests on E. coli, L.Pneuniophila, Stapharaeus, MRSA, Shigella sp and Salmonella arizonae show that ozone gas is a highly anti-bacterial agent, with more than 90% kill rates after 40 minutes, 99.9% kill rates after 60 minutes and 100% kill rates after 2 hours.

    4. Ozonated water has shown to kill instantly more than 5 log units of Salmonella typhirium and Escherichia coli cells, as well as 4,5 log units of Candida albicans and Zygosaccraomyces bailli.

    5. Ozonated water is effective as a disinfectant for poultry carcasses and chill water, with a greater than 90% kill rate of micro-organisms washed from the carcasses and an increase in light transmission of the treated processed water.

    6. The use of the ozonated water to wash carcasses results in no significant loss of colour or of flavour.

    7. The use of ozone during refrigerated storage of poultry has a pronounced effect on flora causing deteriorations and consequently prolongs the useful life of poultry in the refrigerated storage.

    8. Evidence shows that strains of Staphylococcus Aureus colonise on defeathering machinery have become endemic with poultry processing plants, and become resistant to normal cleaning and disinfecting, including chlorine.(No resistance build-up to ozone).

    CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF OZONE

    1. Ozone is used to disinfect incubation rooms and chambers, eliminate use of chemicals which cause a toxic build-up on the egg shell surfaces and weaken the immune system of the birds, and keeping the air which is fed into the incubators free from bacteria and viruses.

    2. Ozonated water is more effective, faster and stronger than chlorinated water, killing all bacteria and viruses, including those that have become resistant to chlorine and conventional cleaning methods. There is no resistance build-up to ozone.

    3. Use it in staff washrooms, in order to disinfect staff clothing and shoes over night, and to keep bacteria levels down during the day.

    4. To disinfect equipment, machinery and packaging materials overnight, and to keep bacteria levels in the area low during the day.

    5. In the refrigerated storage of poultry products to increase the shelf life of the meat and prevent spoilage.

    6. In growing birds, ozone in the pens as a gas reduces the amount of bacteria that they are exposed to thus reducing the spread of infection and viruses thereby increasing their health and even weight by up to 18% and improving their skin colour.

    7. For the disinfecting of sheds as an alternative to formaldehyde, because ozone is more effective than formaldehyde in disinfecting and requires no dormant period in which the sheds have to remain evacuated. Almost immediately after disinfecting by ozone at high concentrations, the shed is ventilated and can be inhabited by the animals and staff safely. Unlike formaldehyde, Ozone is non-carcinogenic.

    8. Ozone oxidizes ammoniacal gases, methane and carbon dioxide, creating a healthier environment for the animals and staff.

    9. Hatching hens which are kept in ozonized conditions show an increase in the amount of eggs they lay, and a stronger consistency of the egg shell, because of the corresponding decrease in pathogenic illness and prevention of a toxic build up of disinfectant chemicals.

    BENEFITS OF OZONE FOR POULTRY DRINKING WATER

    Animal Performance

    1. Reduced waterborne pathogens

    2 Accelerated weight gain

    3. Improved feed conversion

    4. Improved layer output

    5. No escalation in pathogen resistance (as seen with chlorine)

    6. Increased dissolved oxygen increases

    7. Improve animal’s resilience to heat

    Water Quality

    1. Non Toxic

    2. Oxidizes dissolved minerals (iron, manganese, hydrogen sulphide, etc.)

    3. Reduces “fouling”

    4. Eliminates chemical storage/residual

    Additional Benefits

    Chemical savings per broodOzone reduces or eliminates the need for chlorine
    Filter cleaning and maintenanceOzone reduces or eliminates build-up of slime and debris
    Nipple drinker cleaningOzone reduces or eliminates calcified debris build-up
    Chlorine system maintenanceOzone eliminates need for chlorine
    Chlorine system filter replacementOzone increases useful filter life
    Chemical handling/storageOzone eliminates need for chlorine
    Heat ToleranceIncreased dissolved oxygen in water improves bird tolerance to heat

  • Products and packing materials treatment

    OZONE USE IN THE POULTRY INDUSTRY

    Ozone as an air treatment is used in the poultry industry, from the storage and incubation of eggs, to the breeding of healthy birds, as well as for effective processing, storage and transport of poultry and meat products. Ozonated water is used to wash and sterilize meat and equipment.

    The most important advantage of using ozone is that it quicker and more reactive and leaves no chemical residue, and even after high concentrations have been used to disinfect an area, it is immediately possible for staff to work in that area without a health risk.

    EFFICACY REVIEW

    1. It has been proven that ozone is a highly effective oxidant, which kills bacteria on the surfaces of meat and equipment.

    2. Ozone is more effective than other air disinfecting systems such as chemical fogging and UV light.

    3. Tests on E. coli, L.Pneuniophila, Stapharaeus, MRSA, Shigella sp and Salmonella arizonae show that ozone gas is a highly anti-bacterial agent, with more than 90% kill rates after 40 minutes, 99.9% kill rates after 60 minutes and 100% kill rates after 2 hours.

    4. Ozonated water has shown to kill instantly more than 5 log units of Salmonella typhirium and Escherichia coli cells, as well as 4,5 log units of Candida albicans and Zygosaccraomyces bailli.

    5. Ozonated water is effective as a disinfectant for poultry carcasses and chill water, with a greater than 90% kill rate of micro-organisms washed from the carcasses and an increase in light transmission of the treated processed water.

    6. The use of the ozonated water to wash carcasses results in no significant loss of colour or of flavour.

    7. The use of ozone during refrigerated storage of poultry has a pronounced effect on flora causing deteriorations and consequently prolongs the useful life of poultry in the refrigerated storage.

    8. Evidence shows that strains of Staphylococcus Aureus colonise on defeathering machinery have become endemic with poultry processing plants, and become resistant to normal cleaning and disinfecting, including chlorine.(No resistance build-up to ozone).

    CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF OZONE

    1. Ozone is used to disinfect incubation rooms and chambers, eliminate use of chemicals which cause a toxic build-up on the egg shell surfaces and weaken the immune system of the birds, and keeping the air which is fed into the incubators free from bacteria and viruses.

    2. Ozonated water is more effective, faster and stronger than chlorinated water, killing all bacteria and viruses, including those that have become resistant to chlorine and conventional cleaning methods. There is no resistance build-up to ozone.

    3. Use it in staff washrooms, in order to disinfect staff clothing and shoes over night, and to keep bacteria levels down during the day.

    4. To disinfect equipment, machinery and packaging materials overnight, and to keep bacteria levels in the area low during the day.

    5. In the refrigerated storage of poultry products to increase the shelf life of the meat and prevent spoilage.

    6. In growing birds, ozone in the pens as a gas reduces the amount of bacteria that they are exposed to thus reducing the spread of infection and viruses thereby increasing their health and even weight by up to 18% and improving their skin colour.

    7. For the disinfecting of sheds as an alternative to formaldehyde, because ozone is more effective than formaldehyde in disinfecting and requires no dormant period in which the sheds have to remain evacuated. Almost immediately after disinfecting by ozone at high concentrations, the shed is ventilated and can be inhabited by the animals and staff safely. Unlike formaldehyde, Ozone is non-carcinogenic.

    8. Ozone oxidizes ammoniacal gases, methane and carbon dioxide, creating a healthier environment for the animals and staff.

    9. Hatching hens which are kept in ozonized conditions show an increase in the amount of eggs they lay, and a stronger consistency of the egg shell, because of the corresponding decrease in pathogenic illness and prevention of a toxic build up of disinfectant chemicals.

    BENEFITS OF OZONE FOR POULTRY DRINKING WATER

    Animal Performance

    1. Reduced waterborne pathogens

    2 Accelerated weight gain

    3. Improved feed conversion

    4. Improved layer output

    5. No escalation in pathogen resistance (as seen with chlorine)

    6. Increased dissolved oxygen increases

    7. Improve animal’s resilience to heat

    Water Quality

    1. Non Toxic

    2. Oxidizes dissolved minerals (iron, manganese, hydrogen sulphide, etc.)

    3. Reduces “fouling”

    4. Eliminates chemical storage/residual

    Additional Benefits

    Chemical savings per broodOzone reduces or eliminates the need for chlorine
    Filter cleaning and maintenanceOzone reduces or eliminates build-up of slime and debris
    Nipple drinker cleaningOzone reduces or eliminates calcified debris build-up
    Chlorine system maintenanceOzone eliminates need for chlorine
    Chlorine system filter replacementOzone increases useful filter life
    Chemical handling/storageOzone eliminates need for chlorine
    Heat ToleranceIncreased dissolved oxygen in water improves bird tolerance to heat

  • Seed-grain treatment before sowing

    Ozone Technology for Grain Storage and Seed Pre-plant Processing

    Description

    An aeration in-silo dryer is designed for grain disinfection, detoxication, drying, and pre-seeding processing with the crosscut air-ozone mixture flows.

    The pilot dryer model (storage capacity of 0.7 м³) has been manufactured. The experimental research on this model has resulted in specifying:

    • The dryer design elements and characteristics of the support equipment;
    • The ozone dose and concentration inside grain embankment, separately for each kind of processing;
    • The air-ozone mixture pressure and temperature inside of each grain layer;
    • The processing modes for disinfection and detoxication of humid grain and for inhibition of pests in dry grain;
    • The regimes of seed processing which can provide crop yield increase.

    Innovative aspects and main advantages.

    The dryer is designed based on “thermos” principle. Layer-by-layer blowing with air-ozone mixture flows provides high efficiency, uniformity, and safety of grain processing. The proposed technology is inexpensive and ecologically clean as it uses electrical energy in contrast to expensive and environmentally impure technologies which use natural gas and oil.

    The technology provides the possibility for:

    • Grain harvesting 1-2 weeks earlier its ripeness and grain ripening during the drying process;
    • Final drying of grain after discontinued drying process for energy-saving purpose and grain quality preservation;
    • Partial load modes for grain drying, high-quality storage, as well as pre-seeding processing which can provide additional yield increase.

    Advantages of the technology for grain processing with air-ozone mixture:

    • cheapness and high rate of the grain processing;
    • lack of the residual harmful substances on the processed grain;
    • possibility for rehabilitation of grain affected by mold for further safe utilization.

    Ozone is more effective, safe and cheap as a fumigant than any pesticides. Ozone as disinfectant eliminates grain damage caused by microbes and inhibits storehouse pests. The use of ozone is especially effective in humid environment and in high temperatures.

    Pre-seeding processing by low-concentrated ozone will result in increasing their ferment activity by 50 -100%, while high ozone doses can demolish grain cell capsules. The proposed technology will eliminate seeds’ damage at their loading into the aeration dryer.

    Areas of application

    The dryer and technology were developed for application at the grain storage complexes, farms and the seed-farms.

    Danchenko Vitaly Georgievich

    “Elevator” Ltd., Ukraina

  • Post-harvest storage of crops treatment

    Application of ozone in grain processing

    Ozone finds wide application as a powerful disinfectant in water treatment, food processing and preservation and various other environmental applications. Ozone as an oxidant has numerous potential applications in the food industry because of its advantages over traditional food preservation techniques.

    Application of ozone either in gaseous or liquid form in fruit and vegetable processing is often employed for inactivation of pathogenand spoilage micro-organisms. Apart from the wide spectrum of microbial inactivation, ozone also has the potential to kill storage pests and degrade mycotoxins. One of the potential advantages of ozone is that excess ozone autodecomposes rapidly to produce oxygen and thus leaves no residues in food. Its efficacy against a wide range of micro-organisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and bacterial fungal spores has been reported. Such advantages make ozone attractive to the food industry and consequently it has been affirmed as Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use in food processing.

    The possible application of ozone in food grain preservation would address the growing concern over the use of harmful pesticides to kill storage pests. The Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer increased insect resistance, and increased consumer demand for chemical free grains has led grain processers to seek alternatives to control storage pests. Currently, commonly used pesticides (fumigants) for grain storage include aluminium phosphide, methyl bromide and phosphine. Among these, the use of methyl bromide is nearly phased out as agreed in the Montreal Protocol. The persistent use of these pesticides has been reported to disrupt biological control systems by natural agents, leading to outbreaks of insect pests, widespread development of resistance, undesirable effects on non-target organisms, and environmental and human health concerns. The increasing concern about their adverse effects has highlighted the need for the development of selective insect-control alternatives. Use of ozone as food grain fumigant is a viable alternative from both environmental and economical perspectives. Studies reviews the efficacy of ozone for the storageand preservation of food grains, the effect of ozonation on product quality and the current status of ozone application in grain processing.

    Within the grain processing industry, there is an increasing emphasis and trend toward the safe storage of food grains while minimizing qualitative and quantitative losses. Food laws and legislation to phase out chemical pesticides, increased pest resistance towards conventional fumigants and growing consumer demand for ‘‘greener’’ additives has forced processors, grain handlers, food scientists and entomologists to find alternatives. Ozone is an alternative method of grain disinfestation which is environment friendly resulting in no toxic residues. This review paper demonstrated that ozone is an effective greener alternative against a range of pests, micro-organisms and mycotoxins. However, the effectiveness of ozone depends on several factors including the amount of ozone applied, various environmental factors such as grain mass temperature, moisture and the surface characteristics. Ozone offers unique advantages for food grain processing with minimal or desired effects on the physicochemical properties. Hence ozone treatment is a potential greener alternative to conventional fumigants.

    Journal of Cereal Science 51 (2010) 248–255

  • Ozone use in grain drying technology

    Ozone use in grain drying

    Losses caused by activity of microorganisms including mould fungi, bacteria and others reach about 2% of grain dry material and in some countries even up to 50% of the total yield . Mould fungi degrade not only the quantative but also qualitative grain and grain product indicies. In addition, the majority of mould fungi are able to synthesize in certain conditions mycotoxins harmful to humans and livestock. The main mold fungi types producing mycotoxins are Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. Their spread and mycotoxin production depend on many factors including agricultural technology of growing, temperature and moisture, conditions during crop harvesting and Storage. Microorganism growth can be suppressed by drying grain in drying devices or by active ventilation, when moisture content in them is reduced to 13–14%. However, these measures do not ensure a complete extermination of microorganisms in grain. Disinfection of grain is a widely applied measure to conserve its quality. As a means of grain disinfection (against mould fungi and their toxins) various chemicals were investigated (sodium hypochlorite, various antioxidants and others). However, they are costly, inefficient and not ecological. More often grain is disinfected using phosphate hydrogen (PH3) and methyl bromide (CH3Br), however, their application becomes more and more restricted in Europe as is already completely banned in the US. Reaction of methyl bromide with water releases methane gas, which is poisonous. CH3Br reduces ozone and destroys its layer in the upper zone of the atmosphere. In addition, some microorganisms in stored grain become resistant to the above mentioned chemicals. Scientists acknowledge that usage of chemical means causes a series of ecological, social and power engineering problems. Biological substances as a means of extermination of mould fungi micromycetes were also investigated (propion ferment, modified manano-oligosaccharides, agents obtained from bacteria Erwinia herbicola and others) but their utilization technology is long and complex. In the US, attempts were made to inactivate mould fungi on barley grain surface using ether oil, but it reduces grain germinating ability. Physical disinfection means are among the most promising ones being the least harmful to the environment, and they include grain cleaning, thermal processing, exposure to high frequency electromagnetic oscillation, to electron flux, luminescence or ozone and others. However, most of these technologies are very costly while others are not investigated sufficiently.

    With the issues of healthy nourishment and environmental ecology becoming more vital nowadays, the search for new and more environment-friendly grain disinfection means is urgent. Ozone (O3), being a powerful oxidant , can be utilized to oxidize many chemical compounds and microorganisms. Ozone is more acceptable ecologically than chemical disinfection means and when used leaves important grain quality properties unaffected. The main advantage of this disinfection procedure is absence of harmful reaction products after exposure of microorganisms to it.

    Experimental investigations confirmed conclusions of researchers that ozone penetration is influenced mainly by the length of exposure to ozone.

    1. When the air–ozone mixture is blown through the grain mound, ozone splits in contact with the grain surface and disinfects it; this process is evaluated by the ozone absorption factor (absorptivity). An appreciable ozone concentration flow spreads in the direction of the drying agent movement until it reaches the upper layers of the grain mound. A direct link exists between grain moisture and ozone absorption, and moister grain has a greater absorption capacity.

    2. The efficiency of disinfection by ozone and its positive influence on grain drying depend on ozone concentration in the air stream blown, the length of exposure to ozone, mound height and the ozone absorption factor, which diminishes when the time of exposure to ozone increases.

    3. The ozone–air mixture used for active ventilation drying of grain (with ozone concentration 700 ppb) enables reducing the duration of drying by about 20% and of mycological pollution, depending on moisture content w, from 2.2 (grain w = 15.2%) to three times (grain w = 22.0%).

    Lithuanian University of Agriculture,

    Department of Heat and Biotechnological

FISH HATCHERY

Fish farmingFishingFish ProcessingFish Storage

  • Water treatment

    OZONE APPLICATIONS IN THE SEAFOOD INDUSTRY

    The terminology “Seafood” encompasses a very broad scope of products, because it includes the raising of seafood (mariculture and aquaculture – which relates to fresh water “seafood”), the washing of seafood (shellfish) after harvest (depuration), the storage of fresh seafood and fish, and finally to the processing of such products. In each of these applications ozone has found significant commercial application.

    MARICULTURE AND AQUACULTURE

    The sensitivity of fish eggs (roe) and juvenile fish (fry) to ubiquitous microorganisms and natural predators can result in significant losses. Screening of tanks protects against predators, and ozone protects against microorganisms and disease epidemics these can cause. Primary advantages of treating influent hatchery waters with ozone are that it is self-regulating and does not create byproducts that are toxic to the eggs or fry. How is ozone self-regulating? Over-treating influent waters with ozone will be toxic to the eggs and fry, and too little ozone will be microbiologically ineffective.

    Ozone has been in use at U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service hatcheries for decades to hatch and raise fingerlings for annual stocking of rivers, lakes and even commercial fisheries. Many catfish farmers also have discovered the benefits of ozone.

    International Ozone Association, www.io3a.org

  • Ozonated Ice use in transportation and shortly storage

    OZONE APPLICATIONS IN THE SEAFOOD INDUSTRY

    The terminology “Seafood” encompasses a very broad scope of products, because it includes the raising of seafood (mariculture and aquaculture – which relates to fresh water “seafood”), the washing of seafood (shellfish) after harvest (depuration), the storage of fresh seafood and fish, and finally to the processing of such products. In each of these applications ozone has found significant commercial application.

    STORAGE OF FRESH SEAFOOD AND FISH

    Once fish have been harvested, the natural processes of decomposition begin, both externally (bacterial degradation) and internally (enzymatic changes), ultimately resulting in putrefaction. Routinely, freshly caught fish are stored under ice to lower their temperature, which decreases the rates of both internal and external decomposition mechanisms.

    For decades, ozone has been in use on-board fishing vessels to treat water used to make ice for storing fish harvests. Such ice is microbiologically cleaner than ice made from raw water. Adding ozone to water used to wash fresh caught seafood also lowers the number of microorganisms on fish surfaces, increasing their storage times and delaying spoilage.

    International Ozone Association, www.io3a.org

  • Shelf life extending and improving fish quality

    Ozonated water treatment presents an opportunity to improve the product quality by reducing spoilage bacteria during mechanically peeled shrimp processing operations. Soaking peeled shrimp meat in ozonated water was found to be more effective than spraying shrimp with ozonated water, and the higher ozone concentrations and longer treatment times studied were more effective for reducing levels of spoilage bacteria levels on the shrimp. The application of ozonated water did not increase lipid oxidation in the shrimp immediately after treatment. The effects of ozonated water on the quality of ice from ice machines can be very beneficial, especially if ozone generation is being used at the facility and can be employed as a water treatment during periods when ozone is not needed in the plant.

    A novel refrigeration system that was developed by combining an ozone generator with a slurry ice system, allowed a better maintenance of sensory and microbiological quality, and implied a significant extension of seafood shelf life. Biochemical analyses also confirmed that the presence of ozone did not exert any obvious negative effect on fish quality (flat fish species), and even allowed the inhibition of certain mechanisms involved in lipid hydrolysis and oxidation. On the basis of the results, the combined use of ozone and slurry ice may be recommended for the refrigerated storage of turbot and other flat fish species. Ozone has been traditionally used as a disinfectant for fresh water aquaculture systems: in the treatment of fish and egg’s disinfection; sterilization of the water (improve water quality); decomposition of the odorous compounds (geosmin and 2-methyllisoborneol, 2-MIB) in natural waters; and its applications for improving the sensory quality and shelf life of fish have been described recently.

    Delivering clean fish with low microbial loads in clean water will be advantageous for maintaining high quality products. An extensive testing in 2002 found that ozone could be applied to aquaculture tanks to reduce foam and slime on fish in the fish tanks. This technology needs to be expanded and tested across the industry, ozone was added to water in a recirculating rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) culture system just prior to the culture tanks in order to oxidize nitrite and organic material, improve overall water quality, and assist removal of solids across the microscreen filter.

    International Ozone Association, www.io3a.org

  • Processing Plant desinfection

    OZONE APPLICATIONS IN THE SEAFOOD INDUSTRY

    The terminology “Seafood” encompasses a very broad scope of products, because it includes the raising of seafood (mariculture and aquaculture – which relates to fresh water “seafood”), the washing of seafood (shellfish) after harvest (depuration), the storage of fresh seafood and fish, and finally to the processing of such products. In each of these applications ozone has found significant commercial application.

    PROCESSING OF SEAFOOD

    Some fish processing plants recently have adopted the addition of ozone to all waters used throughout the plant for washing fresh fish, but also for sanitizing processing equipment, workers clothing and boots, for making ice, and for washing drains at the end of the work day or shift.

    A Swiss sushi processing plant has adopted ozone, along with other processing steps including ultrasound, UV radiation, electrolyzed water, and modified atmosphere packaging, to extend the conventional shelf lifetimes of fresh sushi from three to seven days. Since a single product recall by public health authorities can result in very poor press and lowered product sales (to say the least), the use of ozone coupled with the other processing steps listed provides an insurance policy that allows the Plant Manager to finally sleep well each night.

    International Ozone Association, www.io3a.org

  • Ozonated water washing

    OZONE APPLICATIONS IN THE SEAFOOD INDUSTRY

    The terminology “Seafood” encompasses a very broad scope of products, because it includes the raising of seafood (mariculture and aquaculture – which relates to fresh water “seafood”), the washing of seafood (shellfish) after harvest (depuration), the storage of fresh seafood and fish, and finally to the processing of such products. In each of these applications ozone has found significant commercial application.

    SHELLFISH DEPURATION

    Shellfish (oysters, clams, mussels) feed by opening their shells to allow seawater to pass through their bodies. As this happens, algae are filtered to provide food for growth. On the other hand, microorganisms and viruses also are filtered into the mollusk meat. Therefore, when harvested, the contaminated shellfish are held several days in a clean water supply so that over time (4-7 days), the microorganism loadings will pass out of the edible shellfish meat. Treating the depuration station influent water with ozone decreases the time required for the harvested animals to rid themselves of toxic microorganisms and viruses by at least 33%. This technique has been in commercial practice in Mediterranean depuration stations since the 1920s.

    International Ozone Association, www.io3a.org

  • Ice house desinfection

    Benefits of Ozone Use in Cold Storage:

    Extend shelf-life of the produce within the cold storage facility.

    Air-borne microbiological control.

    • Low ozone levels (0.3 PPM) will inhibit microbiological growth in the air.
    • High ozone levels can be used for disinfection when room is empty.

    Surface sanitation can be maintained

    • By inhibiting microbiological growth pathogens on the surface of produce, containers, and walls will be kept to a minimum.

    Eliminate mold growth from cold storage area.

    Odor control

    • Maintain an odor-free cold storage area
    • Keep odors from cross contaminating between products

    Ethylene Removal.

    In the cold storage and agriculture applications, ozone is very effective as:

    • Product “Insurance” – maintains superior product quality while decreasing shrink and increasing cold storage hold times
    • Air-borne and surface-borne microbial control
    • Ozone efficiently and economically generated, applied and controlled automatically on-site
    • Continuously treats and sanitizes cold air at point of introduction
    • Rapid return on investment
    • USDA & FDA approved. National Organic Program (NOP) allowed.

    Additionally, gaseous ozone oxidizes and destroys ethylene gas that is released when fruits and vegetables begin to ripen by the following reaction: H2C=CH2 + O3 → CO2 + H2O.

    Thus, the use of gaseous ozone can reduce ripening while in storage. Ozonizing the air in a cold storage room can reduce the level of ethylene in the air. Ozone generators may be of most use in places where ethylene-producing and ethylene-sensitive fruits and vegetables may be stored in the same room.

FOOD PROCESSING

Fruit and vegetable processingMilk and meat processingBakeryFlour-and-cereals industry

  • Ozone treatment of raw materials

    MAKING FOOD AND WATER SAFER THAN EVER BEFORE WITH OZONE

    By Michael Cutler, M.D. for Pacific Ozone

    What Microorganisms can Ozone treat?

    Water safety problems that have formerly been addressed with acid, peroxide, chlorine or other oxidants are now prime candidates for ozone treatment. And if ozone cannot effectively treat a water quality problem, it’s likely that no other available oxidant could do the job either. There is quite a long list of microorganisms that ozone effectively kills without hurting the food or surface where they reside.

    But to summarize the list, the following are categories of contaminants that can all be treated with ozone:

    • Bacteria—all known
    • Fungi and yeast—all known
    • Protozoa (including parasites and amoebae)—all known.
    • Its effectiveness against Cryptosporidium has some limitations, yet is still the most effective of all known sanitation agents for this organism.

    In general, ozone is used commercially to:

    • Disinfect water before it is bottled
    • Kill bacteria, yeast and protozoa on food-contact surfaces such as fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and all animal meats
    • Kill yeast and mold spores that float in the air in food processing plants
    • Chemically attack (oxidize) impurities in water such as iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites and organic clumps
    • Oxidize and degrade many organic pollutants including pesticides, herbicides and other persistent environmental chemicals as explained below

    Ozone to Disinfect Food and Water

    Not only does ozone have superior qualities over chlorination for water treatment, its application for cleaning and sanitizing foods of many types deserves discussion here. For disinfecting foods, ozone is used to sanitize surfaces of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products. In June 2001 the Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling published in their Federal Register, approved ozone as an additive to kill food-borne pathogens “as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry.” This also included the use of ozone on the treatment, storage, and processing of foods and even the preparing, packing, or holding of raw agricultural commodities for commercial purposes. This came almost as an imperative from the FDA, as ozone has been compared in government reports to other less favorable methods of food cleaning such as the use of hydrogen peroxide, UV light irradiation, peracetic acid, and bromination.

    In order to disinfect organisms, ozone must come in physical contact with them. But it only takes ozone a few seconds of contact time to destroy pathogens. In fact, no pathogen can survive 1.5 milligrams of ozone per liter for 5 minutes at normal drinking water pH and temperatures.

    Consider how many uses ozone has on fruits and vegetables. It is ideal for cleaning and sanitizing fresh produce directly plus it can be sprayed on all the equipment and surfaces where foods are packaged or processed. It can then be sprayed on walls and floors of storage areas and active processing areas to kill and remove bacteria or other organic matter. And because ozone has such a short half-life it does not build up on surfaces the way detergents can if they are not removed by proper rinsing. Ozone air is even used to blow dry food products to eliminate cross-contamination in the air, and ozone refrigeration is used to eliminate mold build-up.

    Another important consideration is the preservation of fresh produce. Studies of fruits and vegetables indicate that cooling fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvest is a critical factor to extending product shelf life. So by adding ozone to the chilled air and water applied to fruits or vegetables after harvest, both decontamination and cooling can occur in one step.

    Fortunately, ozone does not appear to injure vegetable and fruit tissues during contact with them. Several fresh-cut processors now equipped with ozone currently have preliminary results indicating that bacterial counts are lower as compared to chlorinated systems. Produce such as shredded lettuce exhibits a longer shelf life with less browning when washed with ozone than when chlorine is used, and has a noticeably better flavor. Ozone is also ideal for cleaning and sanitizing beef, pork, poultry, seafood and other fish directly, as well as all the equipment and surfaces where they are packaged or processed. Vacuum packaging, using ozone gas is then used to ensure decontamination into the package.

    Some additional benefits of ozone in the food preparation industry are that it:

    • Extends the shelf life of food products
    • Is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
    • Eliminates all chemical usage and is chemical-free, without the chemical by-products of chlorination
    • Eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
    • Is generated on site, thus eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of otherwise hazardous materials
    • Is very inexpensive to produce once a generator is in use
    • Permits recycling of wastewater

    Cost

    Many cost comparisons between ozone and chlorine have been conducted for a variety of applications. An exhaustive comparative analysis between these two methods is beyond the scope of this paper. Worth mentioning is that depending on the particular use and application, chlorine is generally less expensive. But as newer applications are being discovered and a greater need for safety and quality, ozone becomes less expensive overall with superior results. For example, one must consider the inherent costs of chlorine’s transport, cleanup and storage of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals. In contrast, ozone is generated onsite without storage requirements and is made from harmless oxygen. Depending on the application, chlorination may be less or more expensive than ozone treatment.

    Efficacy

    Ozone is highly reactive molecule, killing bacteria and other microbes 3,000 times faster than chlorine. Because it is so highly reactive, ozone is also effective at removing organic contaminates that grow on food processing equipment.

    A developing national issue with our foods is the widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides on our crops. The use of these chemicals has unquestionably enhanced farmer’s crop yields. These chemicals have also assisted your grocery store to carry fresher produce—another benefit few would want to lose. Yet with these benefits comes a peaking national concern about the harmful effects of these chemicals. This has led to the now huge organic food movement, aimed at making our produce safer for health.

    Summary

    The simple but powerful molecule ozone is naturally used by the earth to clean the atmosphere. Thankfully, it can now be safely and efficiently generated for many food-grade cleaning purposes. Ozone is becoming the preferred method for disinfecting water supplies for many reasons, primarily effectiveness and health safety. Ozone has now been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for sanitizing food supplies of all types. Ozone is even being shown to evaporate pesticide, herbicide and other persistent chemical residues from produce surfaces resulting in a new generation of healthier and safer foods.

  • Pipeline, surfaces, floors, equipment disinfection

    MAKING FOOD AND WATER SAFER THAN EVER BEFORE WITH OZONE

    By Michael Cutler, M.D. for Pacific Ozone

    What Microorganisms can Ozone treat?

    Water safety problems that have formerly been addressed with acid, peroxide, chlorine or other oxidants are now prime candidates for ozone treatment. And if ozone cannot effectively treat a water quality problem, it’s likely that no other available oxidant could do the job either. There is quite a long list of microorganisms that ozone effectively kills without hurting the food or surface where they reside.

    But to summarize the list, the following are categories of contaminants that can all be treated with ozone:

    • Bacteria—all known
    • Fungi and yeast—all known
    • Protozoa (including parasites and amoebae)—all known.
    • Its effectiveness against Cryptosporidium has some limitations, yet is still the most effective of all known sanitation agents for this organism.

    In general, ozone is used commercially to:

    • Disinfect water before it is bottled
    • Kill bacteria, yeast and protozoa on food-contact surfaces such as fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and all animal meats
    • Kill yeast and mold spores that float in the air in food processing plants
    • Chemically attack (oxidize) impurities in water such as iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites and organic clumps
    • Oxidize and degrade many organic pollutants including pesticides, herbicides and other persistent environmental chemicals as explained below

    Ozone to Disinfect Food and Water

    Not only does ozone have superior qualities over chlorination for water treatment, its application for cleaning and sanitizing foods of many types deserves discussion here. For disinfecting foods, ozone is used to sanitize surfaces of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products. In June 2001 the Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling published in their Federal Register, approved ozone as an additive to kill food-borne pathogens “as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry.” This also included the use of ozone on the treatment, storage, and processing of foods and even the preparing, packing, or holding of raw agricultural commodities for commercial purposes. This came almost as an imperative from the FDA, as ozone has been compared in government reports to other less favorable methods of food cleaning such as the use of hydrogen peroxide, UV light irradiation, peracetic acid, and bromination.

    In order to disinfect organisms, ozone must come in physical contact with them. But it only takes ozone a few seconds of contact time to destroy pathogens. In fact, no pathogen can survive 1.5 milligrams of ozone per liter for 5 minutes at normal drinking water pH and temperatures.

    Consider how many uses ozone has on fruits and vegetables. It is ideal for cleaning and sanitizing fresh produce directly plus it can be sprayed on all the equipment and surfaces where foods are packaged or processed. It can then be sprayed on walls and floors of storage areas and active processing areas to kill and remove bacteria or other organic matter. And because ozone has such a short half-life it does not build up on surfaces the way detergents can if they are not removed by proper rinsing. Ozone air is even used to blow dry food products to eliminate cross-contamination in the air, and ozone refrigeration is used to eliminate mold build-up.

    Another important consideration is the preservation of fresh produce. Studies of fruits and vegetables indicate that cooling fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvest is a critical factor to extending product shelf life. So by adding ozone to the chilled air and water applied to fruits or vegetables after harvest, both decontamination and cooling can occur in one step.

    Fortunately, ozone does not appear to injure vegetable and fruit tissues during contact with them. Several fresh-cut processors now equipped with ozone currently have preliminary results indicating that bacterial counts are lower as compared to chlorinated systems. Produce such as shredded lettuce exhibits a longer shelf life with less browning when washed with ozone than when chlorine is used, and has a noticeably better flavor. Ozone is also ideal for cleaning and sanitizing beef, pork, poultry, seafood and other fish directly, as well as all the equipment and surfaces where they are packaged or processed. Vacuum packaging, using ozone gas is then used to ensure decontamination into the package.

    Some additional benefits of ozone in the food preparation industry are that it:

    • Extends the shelf life of food products
    • Is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
    • Eliminates all chemical usage and is chemical-free, without the chemical by-products of chlorination
    • Eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
    • Is generated on site, thus eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of otherwise hazardous materials
    • Is very inexpensive to produce once a generator is in use
    • Permits recycling of wastewater

    Cost

    Many cost comparisons between ozone and chlorine have been conducted for a variety of applications. An exhaustive comparative analysis between these two methods is beyond the scope of this paper. Worth mentioning is that depending on the particular use and application, chlorine is generally less expensive. But as newer applications are being discovered and a greater need for safety and quality, ozone becomes less expensive overall with superior results. For example, one must consider the inherent costs of chlorine’s transport, cleanup and storage of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals. In contrast, ozone is generated onsite without storage requirements and is made from harmless oxygen. Depending on the application, chlorination may be less or more expensive than ozone treatment.

    Efficacy

    Ozone is highly reactive molecule, killing bacteria and other microbes 3,000 times faster than chlorine. Because it is so highly reactive, ozone is also effective at removing organic contaminates that grow on food processing equipment.

    A developing national issue with our foods is the widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides on our crops. The use of these chemicals has unquestionably enhanced farmer’s crop yields. These chemicals have also assisted your grocery store to carry fresher produce—another benefit few would want to lose. Yet with these benefits comes a peaking national concern about the harmful effects of these chemicals. This has led to the now huge organic food movement, aimed at making our produce safer for health.

    Summary

    The simple but powerful molecule ozone is naturally used by the earth to clean the atmosphere. Thankfully, it can now be safely and efficiently generated for many food-grade cleaning purposes. Ozone is becoming the preferred method for disinfecting water supplies for many reasons, primarily effectiveness and health safety. Ozone has now been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for sanitizing food supplies of all types. Ozone is even being shown to evaporate pesticide, herbicide and other persistent chemical residues from produce surfaces resulting in a new generation of healthier and safer foods.

  • Container and packaging ozone disinfection

    MAKING FOOD AND WATER SAFER THAN EVER BEFORE WITH OZONE

    By Michael Cutler, M.D. for Pacific Ozone

    What Microorganisms can Ozone treat?

    Water safety problems that have formerly been addressed with acid, peroxide, chlorine or other oxidants are now prime candidates for ozone treatment. And if ozone cannot effectively treat a water quality problem, it’s likely that no other available oxidant could do the job either. There is quite a long list of microorganisms that ozone effectively kills without hurting the food or surface where they reside.

    But to summarize the list, the following are categories of contaminants that can all be treated with ozone:

    • Bacteria—all known
    • Fungi and yeast—all known
    • Protozoa (including parasites and amoebae)—all known.
    • Its effectiveness against Cryptosporidium has some limitations, yet is still the most effective of all known sanitation agents for this organism.

    In general, ozone is used commercially to:

    • Disinfect water before it is bottled
    • Kill bacteria, yeast and protozoa on food-contact surfaces such as fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and all animal meats
    • Kill yeast and mold spores that float in the air in food processing plants
    • Chemically attack (oxidize) impurities in water such as iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites and organic clumps
    • Oxidize and degrade many organic pollutants including pesticides, herbicides and other persistent environmental chemicals as explained below

    Ozone to Disinfect Food and Water

    Not only does ozone have superior qualities over chlorination for water treatment, its application for cleaning and sanitizing foods of many types deserves discussion here. For disinfecting foods, ozone is used to sanitize surfaces of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products. In June 2001 the Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling published in their Federal Register, approved ozone as an additive to kill food-borne pathogens “as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry.” This also included the use of ozone on the treatment, storage, and processing of foods and even the preparing, packing, or holding of raw agricultural commodities for commercial purposes. This came almost as an imperative from the FDA, as ozone has been compared in government reports to other less favorable methods of food cleaning such as the use of hydrogen peroxide, UV light irradiation, peracetic acid, and bromination.

    In order to disinfect organisms, ozone must come in physical contact with them. But it only takes ozone a few seconds of contact time to destroy pathogens. In fact, no pathogen can survive 1.5 milligrams of ozone per liter for 5 minutes at normal drinking water pH and temperatures.

    Consider how many uses ozone has on fruits and vegetables. It is ideal for cleaning and sanitizing fresh produce directly plus it can be sprayed on all the equipment and surfaces where foods are packaged or processed. It can then be sprayed on walls and floors of storage areas and active processing areas to kill and remove bacteria or other organic matter. And because ozone has such a short half-life it does not build up on surfaces the way detergents can if they are not removed by proper rinsing. Ozone air is even used to blow dry food products to eliminate cross-contamination in the air, and ozone refrigeration is used to eliminate mold build-up.

    Another important consideration is the preservation of fresh produce. Studies of fruits and vegetables indicate that cooling fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvest is a critical factor to extending product shelf life. So by adding ozone to the chilled air and water applied to fruits or vegetables after harvest, both decontamination and cooling can occur in one step.

    Fortunately, ozone does not appear to injure vegetable and fruit tissues during contact with them. Several fresh-cut processors now equipped with ozone currently have preliminary results indicating that bacterial counts are lower as compared to chlorinated systems. Produce such as shredded lettuce exhibits a longer shelf life with less browning when washed with ozone than when chlorine is used, and has a noticeably better flavor. Ozone is also ideal for cleaning and sanitizing beef, pork, poultry, seafood and other fish directly, as well as all the equipment and surfaces where they are packaged or processed. Vacuum packaging, using ozone gas is then used to ensure decontamination into the package.

    Some additional benefits of ozone in the food preparation industry are that it:

    • Extends the shelf life of food products
    • Is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
    • Eliminates all chemical usage and is chemical-free, without the chemical by-products of chlorination
    • Eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
    • Is generated on site, thus eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of otherwise hazardous materials
    • Is very inexpensive to produce once a generator is in use
    • Permits recycling of wastewater

    Cost

    Many cost comparisons between ozone and chlorine have been conducted for a variety of applications. An exhaustive comparative analysis between these two methods is beyond the scope of this paper. Worth mentioning is that depending on the particular use and application, chlorine is generally less expensive. But as newer applications are being discovered and a greater need for safety and quality, ozone becomes less expensive overall with superior results. For example, one must consider the inherent costs of chlorine’s transport, cleanup and storage of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals. In contrast, ozone is generated onsite without storage requirements and is made from harmless oxygen. Depending on the application, chlorination may be less or more expensive than ozone treatment.

    Efficacy

    Ozone is highly reactive molecule, killing bacteria and other microbes 3,000 times faster than chlorine. Because it is so highly reactive, ozone is also effective at removing organic contaminates that grow on food processing equipment.

    A developing national issue with our foods is the widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides on our crops. The use of these chemicals has unquestionably enhanced farmer’s crop yields. These chemicals have also assisted your grocery store to carry fresher produce—another benefit few would want to lose. Yet with these benefits comes a peaking national concern about the harmful effects of these chemicals. This has led to the now huge organic food movement, aimed at making our produce safer for health.

    Summary

    The simple but powerful molecule ozone is naturally used by the earth to clean the atmosphere. Thankfully, it can now be safely and efficiently generated for many food-grade cleaning purposes. Ozone is becoming the preferred method for disinfecting water supplies for many reasons, primarily effectiveness and health safety. Ozone has now been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for sanitizing food supplies of all types. Ozone is even being shown to evaporate pesticide, herbicide and other persistent chemical residues from produce surfaces resulting in a new generation of healthier and safer foods.

  • Pre used products storage ozone treatment

    MAKING FOOD AND WATER SAFER THAN EVER BEFORE WITH OZONE

    By Michael Cutler, M.D. for Pacific Ozone

    What Microorganisms can Ozone treat?

    Water safety problems that have formerly been addressed with acid, peroxide, chlorine or other oxidants are now prime candidates for ozone treatment. And if ozone cannot effectively treat a water quality problem, it’s likely that no other available oxidant could do the job either. There is quite a long list of microorganisms that ozone effectively kills without hurting the food or surface where they reside.

    But to summarize the list, the following are categories of contaminants that can all be treated with ozone:

    • Bacteria—all known
    • Fungi and yeast—all known
    • Protozoa (including parasites and amoebae)—all known.
    • Its effectiveness against Cryptosporidium has some limitations, yet is still the most effective of all known sanitation agents for this organism.

    In general, ozone is used commercially to:

    • Disinfect water before it is bottled
    • Kill bacteria, yeast and protozoa on food-contact surfaces such as fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and all animal meats
    • Kill yeast and mold spores that float in the air in food processing plants
    • Chemically attack (oxidize) impurities in water such as iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites and organic clumps
    • Oxidize and degrade many organic pollutants including pesticides, herbicides and other persistent environmental chemicals as explained below

    Ozone to Disinfect Food and Water

    Not only does ozone have superior qualities over chlorination for water treatment, its application for cleaning and sanitizing foods of many types deserves discussion here. For disinfecting foods, ozone is used to sanitize surfaces of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products. In June 2001 the Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling published in their Federal Register, approved ozone as an additive to kill food-borne pathogens “as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry.” This also included the use of ozone on the treatment, storage, and processing of foods and even the preparing, packing, or holding of raw agricultural commodities for commercial purposes. This came almost as an imperative from the FDA, as ozone has been compared in government reports to other less favorable methods of food cleaning such as the use of hydrogen peroxide, UV light irradiation, peracetic acid, and bromination.

    In order to disinfect organisms, ozone must come in physical contact with them. But it only takes ozone a few seconds of contact time to destroy pathogens. In fact, no pathogen can survive 1.5 milligrams of ozone per liter for 5 minutes at normal drinking water pH and temperatures.

    Consider how many uses ozone has on fruits and vegetables. It is ideal for cleaning and sanitizing fresh produce directly plus it can be sprayed on all the equipment and surfaces where foods are packaged or processed. It can then be sprayed on walls and floors of storage areas and active processing areas to kill and remove bacteria or other organic matter. And because ozone has such a short half-life it does not build up on surfaces the way detergents can if they are not removed by proper rinsing. Ozone air is even used to blow dry food products to eliminate cross-contamination in the air, and ozone refrigeration is used to eliminate mold build-up.

    Another important consideration is the preservation of fresh produce. Studies of fruits and vegetables indicate that cooling fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvest is a critical factor to extending product shelf life. So by adding ozone to the chilled air and water applied to fruits or vegetables after harvest, both decontamination and cooling can occur in one step.

    Fortunately, ozone does not appear to injure vegetable and fruit tissues during contact with them. Several fresh-cut processors now equipped with ozone currently have preliminary results indicating that bacterial counts are lower as compared to chlorinated systems. Produce such as shredded lettuce exhibits a longer shelf life with less browning when washed with ozone than when chlorine is used, and has a noticeably better flavor. Ozone is also ideal for cleaning and sanitizing beef, pork, poultry, seafood and other fish directly, as well as all the equipment and surfaces where they are packaged or processed. Vacuum packaging, using ozone gas is then used to ensure decontamination into the package.

    Some additional benefits of ozone in the food preparation industry are that it:

    • Extends the shelf life of food products
    • Is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
    • Eliminates all chemical usage and is chemical-free, without the chemical by-products of chlorination
    • Eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
    • Is generated on site, thus eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of otherwise hazardous materials
    • Is very inexpensive to produce once a generator is in use
    • Permits recycling of wastewater

    Cost

    Many cost comparisons between ozone and chlorine have been conducted for a variety of applications. An exhaustive comparative analysis between these two methods is beyond the scope of this paper. Worth mentioning is that depending on the particular use and application, chlorine is generally less expensive. But as newer applications are being discovered and a greater need for safety and quality, ozone becomes less expensive overall with superior results. For example, one must consider the inherent costs of chlorine’s transport, cleanup and storage of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals. In contrast, ozone is generated onsite without storage requirements and is made from harmless oxygen. Depending on the application, chlorination may be less or more expensive than ozone treatment.

    Efficacy

    Ozone is highly reactive molecule, killing bacteria and other microbes 3,000 times faster than chlorine. Because it is so highly reactive, ozone is also effective at removing organic contaminates that grow on food processing equipment.

    A developing national issue with our foods is the widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides on our crops. The use of these chemicals has unquestionably enhanced farmer’s crop yields. These chemicals have also assisted your grocery store to carry fresher produce—another benefit few would want to lose. Yet with these benefits comes a peaking national concern about the harmful effects of these chemicals. This has led to the now huge organic food movement, aimed at making our produce safer for health.

    Summary

    The simple but powerful molecule ozone is naturally used by the earth to clean the atmosphere. Thankfully, it can now be safely and efficiently generated for many food-grade cleaning purposes. Ozone is becoming the preferred method for disinfecting water supplies for many reasons, primarily effectiveness and health safety. Ozone has now been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for sanitizing food supplies of all types. Ozone is even being shown to evaporate pesticide, herbicide and other persistent chemical residues from produce surfaces resulting in a new generation of healthier and safer foods.

  • Staff and other utility rooms treatment with ozone

    MAKING FOOD AND WATER SAFER THAN EVER BEFORE WITH OZONE

    By Michael Cutler, M.D. for Pacific Ozone

    What Microorganisms can Ozone treat?

    Water safety problems that have formerly been addressed with acid, peroxide, chlorine or other oxidants are now prime candidates for ozone treatment. And if ozone cannot effectively treat a water quality problem, it’s likely that no other available oxidant could do the job either. There is quite a long list of microorganisms that ozone effectively kills without hurting the food or surface where they reside.

    But to summarize the list, the following are categories of contaminants that can all be treated with ozone:

    • Bacteria—all known
    • Fungi and yeast—all known
    • Protozoa (including parasites and amoebae)—all known.
    • Its effectiveness against Cryptosporidium has some limitations, yet is still the most effective of all known sanitation agents for this organism.

    In general, ozone is used commercially to:

    • Disinfect water before it is bottled
    • Kill bacteria, yeast and protozoa on food-contact surfaces such as fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and all animal meats
    • Kill yeast and mold spores that float in the air in food processing plants
    • Chemically attack (oxidize) impurities in water such as iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites and organic clumps
    • Oxidize and degrade many organic pollutants including pesticides, herbicides and other persistent environmental chemicals as explained below

    Ozone to Disinfect Food and Water

    Not only does ozone have superior qualities over chlorination for water treatment, its application for cleaning and sanitizing foods of many types deserves discussion here. For disinfecting foods, ozone is used to sanitize surfaces of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products. In June 2001 the Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling published in their Federal Register, approved ozone as an additive to kill food-borne pathogens “as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry.” This also included the use of ozone on the treatment, storage, and processing of foods and even the preparing, packing, or holding of raw agricultural commodities for commercial purposes. This came almost as an imperative from the FDA, as ozone has been compared in government reports to other less favorable methods of food cleaning such as the use of hydrogen peroxide, UV light irradiation, peracetic acid, and bromination.

    In order to disinfect organisms, ozone must come in physical contact with them. But it only takes ozone a few seconds of contact time to destroy pathogens. In fact, no pathogen can survive 1.5 milligrams of ozone per liter for 5 minutes at normal drinking water pH and temperatures.

    Consider how many uses ozone has on fruits and vegetables. It is ideal for cleaning and sanitizing fresh produce directly plus it can be sprayed on all the equipment and surfaces where foods are packaged or processed. It can then be sprayed on walls and floors of storage areas and active processing areas to kill and remove bacteria or other organic matter. And because ozone has such a short half-life it does not build up on surfaces the way detergents can if they are not removed by proper rinsing. Ozone air is even used to blow dry food products to eliminate cross-contamination in the air, and ozone refrigeration is used to eliminate mold build-up.

    Another important consideration is the preservation of fresh produce. Studies of fruits and vegetables indicate that cooling fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvest is a critical factor to extending product shelf life. So by adding ozone to the chilled air and water applied to fruits or vegetables after harvest, both decontamination and cooling can occur in one step.

    Fortunately, ozone does not appear to injure vegetable and fruit tissues during contact with them. Several fresh-cut processors now equipped with ozone currently have preliminary results indicating that bacterial counts are lower as compared to chlorinated systems. Produce such as shredded lettuce exhibits a longer shelf life with less browning when washed with ozone than when chlorine is used, and has a noticeably better flavor. Ozone is also ideal for cleaning and sanitizing beef, pork, poultry, seafood and other fish directly, as well as all the equipment and surfaces where they are packaged or processed. Vacuum packaging, using ozone gas is then used to ensure decontamination into the package.

    Some additional benefits of ozone in the food preparation industry are that it:

    • Extends the shelf life of food products
    • Is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
    • Eliminates all chemical usage and is chemical-free, without the chemical by-products of chlorination
    • Eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
    • Is generated on site, thus eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of otherwise hazardous materials
    • Is very inexpensive to produce once a generator is in use
    • Permits recycling of wastewater

    Cost

    Many cost comparisons between ozone and chlorine have been conducted for a variety of applications. An exhaustive comparative analysis between these two methods is beyond the scope of this paper. Worth mentioning is that depending on the particular use and application, chlorine is generally less expensive. But as newer applications are being discovered and a greater need for safety and quality, ozone becomes less expensive overall with superior results. For example, one must consider the inherent costs of chlorine’s transport, cleanup and storage of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals. In contrast, ozone is generated onsite without storage requirements and is made from harmless oxygen. Depending on the application, chlorination may be less or more expensive than ozone treatment.

    Efficacy

    Ozone is highly reactive molecule, killing bacteria and other microbes 3,000 times faster than chlorine. Because it is so highly reactive, ozone is also effective at removing organic contaminates that grow on food processing equipment.

    A developing national issue with our foods is the widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides on our crops. The use of these chemicals has unquestionably enhanced farmer’s crop yields. These chemicals have also assisted your grocery store to carry fresher produce—another benefit few would want to lose. Yet with these benefits comes a peaking national concern about the harmful effects of these chemicals. This has led to the now huge organic food movement, aimed at making our produce safer for health.

    Summary

    The simple but powerful molecule ozone is naturally used by the earth to clean the atmosphere. Thankfully, it can now be safely and efficiently generated for many food-grade cleaning purposes. Ozone is becoming the preferred method for disinfecting water supplies for many reasons, primarily effectiveness and health safety. Ozone has now been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for sanitizing food supplies of all types. Ozone is even being shown to evaporate pesticide, herbicide and other persistent chemical residues from produce surfaces resulting in a new generation of healthier and safer foods.

  • Pipeline, surfaces, floors, equipment disinfection

    EVALUATION OF CLEANLINESS OF DAIRY PLANTS AND INNOVATIONS FOR IMPROVING HYGIENE

    Kutsara, M. Metsa, M. Rättob, S. Salob, T. Veskusa & G. Wirtanenb

    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland

    Hygiene has an important role in food industry to produce healthy and high quality products. The aim of the study was to evaluate cleanliness of dairy plants. Hygiene level was investigated before and after improvement in the hygiene practices in four Estonian dairies. To make improvement dairies had used ultrasound equipment for cleaning of small utensils and personnel had practical hand hygiene course. The microbial surveys were performed in dairies during summer 2007 and each dairy was visited two times. Survey sampling plans included sampling points in different type of surfaces like indirect/direct product contact and environmental surfaces. In addition some raw material and product, water and air samples were added in sampling plan.

    Microbial samples were taken aseptically from 171 different surfaces with 3 various contact plates (contac dishes were filled with Oxoid chromogenic agars for detection of E. coli/coliform, Listeria spp. and B. cereus), 3 commercial contact agars (Aerobic Count, Enterobacteriaceae and Yeast&Mould Petrifilms), non-woven cloths and Listeria Isolation Transport swabs. Also 34 water samples, 42 raw material and producēt samples were taken. In addition 29 air samples were taken with 3 different methods using Microbial Air Sampler MAS and MD8 air sampler. Temperature, humidity and pH were also measured at each sampling point. Microbial analyses were performed at VTT laboratory in Finland using traditional methods and PCR detection (iQ-CheckTM Listeria monocytogenes II Kit). According to the results cleaning methods used in dairies were effective to provide the cleanliness of direct product contact surfaces, but indirect product contact surfaces and environmental samples were containing higher microbial counts. Protective clothing of personnel, hand washing sink and drains were potential sources of contamination. Results of detecting pathogens from dairies demonstrated that cleaning method used in dairies should be more effective to minimize the potential risk of pathogens. Amounts of detected E. coli and B. Cereus were not disturbing, but L. monocytogenes was found from some surfaces (packaging and filling machine). Air samples demonstrated quite high aerobic bacteria and yeasts and mould counts. Besides survey in dairies, ozone as one of the advanced disinfection technique was tested in laboratory study. Elozo ozone cabin was used and 3 disinfection times (10, 30 and 60 min) were tested. Results of ozonation test indicated that ozonated air has effective impact to destroy L. monocytogenes from cloths in laboratory test ( 5 log reduction).

    The hygiene survey results from Estonian dairies demonstrated that hygiene level between two samplings did not improve notably and the awareness of microbe amounts in process area did not show better cleaning results. According to ozone laboratory test, the use of ozone cabin can be recommended to dairies to improve for example the hygiene of protective clothing.

  • Container and packaging ozone disinfection

    EVALUATION OF CLEANLINESS OF DAIRY PLANTS AND INNOVATIONS FOR IMPROVING HYGIENE

    Kutsara, M. Metsa, M. Rättob, S. Salob, T. Veskusa & G. Wirtanenb

    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland

    Hygiene has an important role in food industry to produce healthy and high quality products. The aim of the study was to evaluate cleanliness of dairy plants. Hygiene level was investigated before and after improvement in the hygiene practices in four Estonian dairies. To make improvement dairies had used ultrasound equipment for cleaning of small utensils and personnel had practical hand hygiene course. The microbial surveys were performed in dairies during summer 2007 and each dairy was visited two times. Survey sampling plans included sampling points in different type of surfaces like indirect/direct product contact and environmental surfaces. In addition some raw material and product, water and air samples were added in sampling plan.

    Microbial samples were taken aseptically from 171 different surfaces with 3 various contact plates (contac dishes were filled with Oxoid chromogenic agars for detection of E. coli/coliform, Listeria spp. and B. cereus), 3 commercial contact agars (Aerobic Count, Enterobacteriaceae and Yeast&Mould Petrifilms), non-woven cloths and Listeria Isolation Transport swabs. Also 34 water samples, 42 raw material and producēt samples were taken. In addition 29 air samples were taken with 3 different methods using Microbial Air Sampler MAS and MD8 air sampler. Temperature, humidity and pH were also measured at each sampling point. Microbial analyses were performed at VTT laboratory in Finland using traditional methods and PCR detection (iQ-CheckTM Listeria monocytogenes II Kit). According to the results cleaning methods used in dairies were effective to provide the cleanliness of direct product contact surfaces, but indirect product contact surfaces and environmental samples were containing higher microbial counts. Protective clothing of personnel, hand washing sink and drains were potential sources of contamination. Results of detecting pathogens from dairies demonstrated that cleaning method used in dairies should be more effective to minimize the potential risk of pathogens. Amounts of detected E. coli and B. Cereus were not disturbing, but L. monocytogenes was found from some surfaces (packaging and filling machine). Air samples demonstrated quite high aerobic bacteria and yeasts and mould counts. Besides survey in dairies, ozone as one of the advanced disinfection technique was tested in laboratory study. Elozo ozone cabin was used and 3 disinfection times (10, 30 and 60 min) were tested. Results of ozonation test indicated that ozonated air has effective impact to destroy L. monocytogenes from cloths in laboratory test ( 5 log reduction).

    The hygiene survey results from Estonian dairies demonstrated that hygiene level between two samplings did not improve notably and the awareness of microbe amounts in process area did not show better cleaning results. According to ozone laboratory test, the use of ozone cabin can be recommended to dairies to improve for example the hygiene of protective clothing.

  • Output ozone treatment

    MAKING FOOD AND WATER SAFER THAN EVER BEFORE WITH OZONE

    By Michael Cutler, M.D. for Pacific Ozone

    What Microorganisms can Ozone treat?

    Water safety problems that have formerly been addressed with acid, peroxide, chlorine or other oxidants are now prime candidates for ozone treatment. And if ozone cannot effectively treat a water quality problem, it’s likely that no other available oxidant could do the job either. There is quite a long list of microorganisms that ozone effectively kills without hurting the food or surface where they reside.

    But to summarize the list, the following are categories of contaminants that can all be treated with ozone:

    • Bacteria—all known
    • Fungi and yeast—all known
    • Protozoa (including parasites and amoebae)—all known.
    • Its effectiveness against Cryptosporidium has some limitations, yet is still the most effective of all known sanitation agents for this organism.

    In general, ozone is used commercially to:

    • Disinfect water before it is bottled
    • Kill bacteria, yeast and protozoa on food-contact surfaces such as fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and all animal meats
    • Kill yeast and mold spores that float in the air in food processing plants
    • Chemically attack (oxidize) impurities in water such as iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites and organic clumps
    • Oxidize and degrade many organic pollutants including pesticides, herbicides and other persistent environmental chemicals as explained below

    Ozone to Disinfect Food and Water

    Not only does ozone have superior qualities over chlorination for water treatment, its application for cleaning and sanitizing foods of many types deserves discussion here. For disinfecting foods, ozone is used to sanitize surfaces of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products. In June 2001 the Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling published in their Federal Register, approved ozone as an additive to kill food-borne pathogens “as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry.” This also included the use of ozone on the treatment, storage, and processing of foods and even the preparing, packing, or holding of raw agricultural commodities for commercial purposes. This came almost as an imperative from the FDA, as ozone has been compared in government reports to other less favorable methods of food cleaning such as the use of hydrogen peroxide, UV light irradiation, peracetic acid, and bromination.

    In order to disinfect organisms, ozone must come in physical contact with them. But it only takes ozone a few seconds of contact time to destroy pathogens. In fact, no pathogen can survive 1.5 milligrams of ozone per liter for 5 minutes at normal drinking water pH and temperatures.

    Consider how many uses ozone has on fruits and vegetables. It is ideal for cleaning and sanitizing fresh produce directly plus it can be sprayed on all the equipment and surfaces where foods are packaged or processed. It can then be sprayed on walls and floors of storage areas and active processing areas to kill and remove bacteria or other organic matter. And because ozone has such a short half-life it does not build up on surfaces the way detergents can if they are not removed by proper rinsing. Ozone air is even used to blow dry food products to eliminate cross-contamination in the air, and ozone refrigeration is used to eliminate mold build-up.

    Another important consideration is the preservation of fresh produce. Studies of fruits and vegetables indicate that cooling fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvest is a critical factor to extending product shelf life. So by adding ozone to the chilled air and water applied to fruits or vegetables after harvest, both decontamination and cooling can occur in one step.

    Fortunately, ozone does not appear to injure vegetable and fruit tissues during contact with them. Several fresh-cut processors now equipped with ozone currently have preliminary results indicating that bacterial counts are lower as compared to chlorinated systems. Produce such as shredded lettuce exhibits a longer shelf life with less browning when washed with ozone than when chlorine is used, and has a noticeably better flavor. Ozone is also ideal for cleaning and sanitizing beef, pork, poultry, seafood and other fish directly, as well as all the equipment and surfaces where they are packaged or processed. Vacuum packaging, using ozone gas is then used to ensure decontamination into the package.

    Some additional benefits of ozone in the food preparation industry are that it:

    • Extends the shelf life of food products
    • Is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
    • Eliminates all chemical usage and is chemical-free, without the chemical by-products of chlorination
    • Eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
    • Is generated on site, thus eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of otherwise hazardous materials
    • Is very inexpensive to produce once a generator is in use
    • Permits recycling of wastewater

    Cost

    Many cost comparisons between ozone and chlorine have been conducted for a variety of applications. An exhaustive comparative analysis between these two methods is beyond the scope of this paper. Worth mentioning is that depending on the particular use and application, chlorine is generally less expensive. But as newer applications are being discovered and a greater need for safety and quality, ozone becomes less expensive overall with superior results. For example, one must consider the inherent costs of chlorine’s transport, cleanup and storage of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals. In contrast, ozone is generated onsite without storage requirements and is made from harmless oxygen. Depending on the application, chlorination may be less or more expensive than ozone treatment.

    Efficacy

    Ozone is highly reactive molecule, killing bacteria and other microbes 3,000 times faster than chlorine. Because it is so highly reactive, ozone is also effective at removing organic contaminates that grow on food processing equipment.

    A developing national issue with our foods is the widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides on our crops. The use of these chemicals has unquestionably enhanced farmer’s crop yields. These chemicals have also assisted your grocery store to carry fresher produce—another benefit few would want to lose. Yet with these benefits comes a peaking national concern about the harmful effects of these chemicals. This has led to the now huge organic food movement, aimed at making our produce safer for health.

    Summary

    The simple but powerful molecule ozone is naturally used by the earth to clean the atmosphere. Thankfully, it can now be safely and efficiently generated for many food-grade cleaning purposes. Ozone is becoming the preferred method for disinfecting water supplies for many reasons, primarily effectiveness and health safety. Ozone has now been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for sanitizing food supplies of all types. Ozone is even being shown to evaporate pesticide, herbicide and other persistent chemical residues from produce surfaces resulting in a new generation of healthier and safer foods.

  • Cold storage ozone treatment

    MAKING FOOD AND WATER SAFER THAN EVER BEFORE WITH OZONE

    By Michael Cutler, M.D. for Pacific Ozone

    What Microorganisms can Ozone treat?

    Water safety problems that have formerly been addressed with acid, peroxide, chlorine or other oxidants are now prime candidates for ozone treatment. And if ozone cannot effectively treat a water quality problem, it’s likely that no other available oxidant could do the job either. There is quite a long list of microorganisms that ozone effectively kills without hurting the food or surface where they reside.

    But to summarize the list, the following are categories of contaminants that can all be treated with ozone:

    • Bacteria—all known
    • Fungi and yeast—all known
    • Protozoa (including parasites and amoebae)—all known.
    • Its effectiveness against Cryptosporidium has some limitations, yet is still the most effective of all known sanitation agents for this organism.

    In general, ozone is used commercially to:

    • Disinfect water before it is bottled
    • Kill bacteria, yeast and protozoa on food-contact surfaces such as fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and all animal meats
    • Kill yeast and mold spores that float in the air in food processing plants
    • Chemically attack (oxidize) impurities in water such as iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites and organic clumps
    • Oxidize and degrade many organic pollutants including pesticides, herbicides and other persistent environmental chemicals as explained below

    Ozone to Disinfect Food and Water

    Not only does ozone have superior qualities over chlorination for water treatment, its application for cleaning and sanitizing foods of many types deserves discussion here. For disinfecting foods, ozone is used to sanitize surfaces of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products. In June 2001 the Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling published in their Federal Register, approved ozone as an additive to kill food-borne pathogens “as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry.” This also included the use of ozone on the treatment, storage, and processing of foods and even the preparing, packing, or holding of raw agricultural commodities for commercial purposes. This came almost as an imperative from the FDA, as ozone has been compared in government reports to other less favorable methods of food cleaning such as the use of hydrogen peroxide, UV light irradiation, peracetic acid, and bromination.

    In order to disinfect organisms, ozone must come in physical contact with them. But it only takes ozone a few seconds of contact time to destroy pathogens. In fact, no pathogen can survive 1.5 milligrams of ozone per liter for 5 minutes at normal drinking water pH and temperatures.

    Consider how many uses ozone has on fruits and vegetables. It is ideal for cleaning and sanitizing fresh produce directly plus it can be sprayed on all the equipment and surfaces where foods are packaged or processed. It can then be sprayed on walls and floors of storage areas and active processing areas to kill and remove bacteria or other organic matter. And because ozone has such a short half-life it does not build up on surfaces the way detergents can if they are not removed by proper rinsing. Ozone air is even used to blow dry food products to eliminate cross-contamination in the air, and ozone refrigeration is used to eliminate mold build-up.

    Another important consideration is the preservation of fresh produce. Studies of fruits and vegetables indicate that cooling fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvest is a critical factor to extending product shelf life. So by adding ozone to the chilled air and water applied to fruits or vegetables after harvest, both decontamination and cooling can occur in one step.

    Fortunately, ozone does not appear to injure vegetable and fruit tissues during contact with them. Several fresh-cut processors now equipped with ozone currently have preliminary results indicating that bacterial counts are lower as compared to chlorinated systems. Produce such as shredded lettuce exhibits a longer shelf life with less browning when washed with ozone than when chlorine is used, and has a noticeably better flavor. Ozone is also ideal for cleaning and sanitizing beef, pork, poultry, seafood and other fish directly, as well as all the equipment and surfaces where they are packaged or processed. Vacuum packaging, using ozone gas is then used to ensure decontamination into the package.

    Some additional benefits of ozone in the food preparation industry are that it:

    • Extends the shelf life of food products
    • Is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
    • Eliminates all chemical usage and is chemical-free, without the chemical by-products of chlorination
    • Eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
    • Is generated on site, thus eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of otherwise hazardous materials
    • Is very inexpensive to produce once a generator is in use
    • Permits recycling of wastewater

    Cost

    Many cost comparisons between ozone and chlorine have been conducted for a variety of applications. An exhaustive comparative analysis between these two methods is beyond the scope of this paper. Worth mentioning is that depending on the particular use and application, chlorine is generally less expensive. But as newer applications are being discovered and a greater need for safety and quality, ozone becomes less expensive overall with superior results. For example, one must consider the inherent costs of chlorine’s transport, cleanup and storage of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals. In contrast, ozone is generated onsite without storage requirements and is made from harmless oxygen. Depending on the application, chlorination may be less or more expensive than ozone treatment.

    Efficacy

    Ozone is highly reactive molecule, killing bacteria and other microbes 3,000 times faster than chlorine. Because it is so highly reactive, ozone is also effective at removing organic contaminates that grow on food processing equipment.

    A developing national issue with our foods is the widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides on our crops. The use of these chemicals has unquestionably enhanced farmer’s crop yields. These chemicals have also assisted your grocery store to carry fresher produce—another benefit few would want to lose. Yet with these benefits comes a peaking national concern about the harmful effects of these chemicals. This has led to the now huge organic food movement, aimed at making our produce safer for health.

    Summary

    The simple but powerful molecule ozone is naturally used by the earth to clean the atmosphere. Thankfully, it can now be safely and efficiently generated for many food-grade cleaning purposes. Ozone is becoming the preferred method for disinfecting water supplies for many reasons, primarily effectiveness and health safety. Ozone has now been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for sanitizing food supplies of all types. Ozone is even being shown to evaporate pesticide, herbicide and other persistent chemical residues from produce surfaces resulting in a new generation of healthier and safer foods.

  • Staff and other utility rooms treatment with ozone

    MAKING FOOD AND WATER SAFER THAN EVER BEFORE WITH OZONE

    By Michael Cutler, M.D. for Pacific Ozone

    What Microorganisms can Ozone treat?

    Water safety problems that have formerly been addressed with acid, peroxide, chlorine or other oxidants are now prime candidates for ozone treatment. And if ozone cannot effectively treat a water quality problem, it’s likely that no other available oxidant could do the job either. There is quite a long list of microorganisms that ozone effectively kills without hurting the food or surface where they reside.

    But to summarize the list, the following are categories of contaminants that can all be treated with ozone:

    • Bacteria—all known
    • Fungi and yeast—all known
    • Protozoa (including parasites and amoebae)—all known.
    • Its effectiveness against Cryptosporidium has some limitations, yet is still the most effective of all known sanitation agents for this organism.

    In general, ozone is used commercially to:

    • Disinfect water before it is bottled
    • Kill bacteria, yeast and protozoa on food-contact surfaces such as fresh fruits, vegetables, grains, seeds, nuts, legumes, and all animal meats
    • Kill yeast and mold spores that float in the air in food processing plants
    • Chemically attack (oxidize) impurities in water such as iron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, nitrites and organic clumps
    • Oxidize and degrade many organic pollutants including pesticides, herbicides and other persistent environmental chemicals as explained below

    Ozone to Disinfect Food and Water

    Not only does ozone have superior qualities over chlorination for water treatment, its application for cleaning and sanitizing foods of many types deserves discussion here. For disinfecting foods, ozone is used to sanitize surfaces of vegetables, fruits, and other agricultural products. In June 2001 the Food and Drug Administration’s final ruling published in their Federal Register, approved ozone as an additive to kill food-borne pathogens “as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry.” This also included the use of ozone on the treatment, storage, and processing of foods and even the preparing, packing, or holding of raw agricultural commodities for commercial purposes. This came almost as an imperative from the FDA, as ozone has been compared in government reports to other less favorable methods of food cleaning such as the use of hydrogen peroxide, UV light irradiation, peracetic acid, and bromination.

    In order to disinfect organisms, ozone must come in physical contact with them. But it only takes ozone a few seconds of contact time to destroy pathogens. In fact, no pathogen can survive 1.5 milligrams of ozone per liter for 5 minutes at normal drinking water pH and temperatures.

    Consider how many uses ozone has on fruits and vegetables. It is ideal for cleaning and sanitizing fresh produce directly plus it can be sprayed on all the equipment and surfaces where foods are packaged or processed. It can then be sprayed on walls and floors of storage areas and active processing areas to kill and remove bacteria or other organic matter. And because ozone has such a short half-life it does not build up on surfaces the way detergents can if they are not removed by proper rinsing. Ozone air is even used to blow dry food products to eliminate cross-contamination in the air, and ozone refrigeration is used to eliminate mold build-up.

    Another important consideration is the preservation of fresh produce. Studies of fruits and vegetables indicate that cooling fruits and vegetables as soon as possible after harvest is a critical factor to extending product shelf life. So by adding ozone to the chilled air and water applied to fruits or vegetables after harvest, both decontamination and cooling can occur in one step.

    Fortunately, ozone does not appear to injure vegetable and fruit tissues during contact with them. Several fresh-cut processors now equipped with ozone currently have preliminary results indicating that bacterial counts are lower as compared to chlorinated systems. Produce such as shredded lettuce exhibits a longer shelf life with less browning when washed with ozone than when chlorine is used, and has a noticeably better flavor. Ozone is also ideal for cleaning and sanitizing beef, pork, poultry, seafood and other fish directly, as well as all the equipment and surfaces where they are packaged or processed. Vacuum packaging, using ozone gas is then used to ensure decontamination into the package.

    Some additional benefits of ozone in the food preparation industry are that it:

    • Extends the shelf life of food products
    • Is much safer for employees than any conventional chemicals
    • Eliminates all chemical usage and is chemical-free, without the chemical by-products of chlorination
    • Eliminates the use of hot water and conventional sanitizer
    • Is generated on site, thus eliminating the transporting, storing and handling of otherwise hazardous materials
    • Is very inexpensive to produce once a generator is in use
    • Permits recycling of wastewater

    Cost

    Many cost comparisons between ozone and chlorine have been conducted for a variety of applications. An exhaustive comparative analysis between these two methods is beyond the scope of this paper. Worth mentioning is that depending on the particular use and application, chlorine is generally less expensive. But as newer applications are being discovered and a greater need for safety and quality, ozone becomes less expensive overall with superior results. For example, one must consider the inherent costs of chlorine’s transport, cleanup and storage of potentially hazardous toxic chemicals. In contrast, ozone is generated onsite without storage requirements and is made from harmless oxygen. Depending on the application, chlorination may be less or more expensive than ozone treatment.

    Efficacy

    Ozone is highly reactive molecule, killing bacteria and other microbes 3,000 times faster than chlorine. Because it is so highly reactive, ozone is also effective at removing organic contaminates that grow on food processing equipment.

    A developing national issue with our foods is the widespread use of pesticides, herbicides and fungicides on our crops. The use of these chemicals has unquestionably enhanced farmer’s crop yields. These chemicals have also assisted your grocery store to carry fresher produce—another benefit few would want to lose. Yet with these benefits comes a peaking national concern about the harmful effects of these chemicals. This has led to the now huge organic food movement, aimed at making our produce safer for health.

    Summary

    The simple but powerful molecule ozone is naturally used by the earth to clean the atmosphere. Thankfully, it can now be safely and efficiently generated for many food-grade cleaning purposes. Ozone is becoming the preferred method for disinfecting water supplies for many reasons, primarily effectiveness and health safety. Ozone has now been recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for sanitizing food supplies of all types. Ozone is even being shown to evaporate pesticide, herbicide and other persistent chemical residues from produce surfaces resulting in a new generation of healthier and safer foods.

  • Plant and storage treatment with ozone

    FOOD SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT IN BAKERIES

    Helen Ehavald

    Fazer Bakeries AS, Tallinn, Estonia

    Bakery products are an important part of balanced diet. Wide variety of bakery products such as wheat loafs, rye breads, buns, coffee breads, cakes, cookies, pizza etc are produced and sold in supermarkets. The traditional strategic approach to food safety risk management in bakeries is to implement practices based upon food storage, cleaning and sanitation, pest control, personal hygiene, maintenance program etc. Food hygiene deals with ensuring that food is safe to eat and it should cover all aspects of processing, preparing, transport, handling or serving. It is vital throughout the whole food chain.Bakery products, like many processed foods, are subject to physical, chemical and biological spoilage. The main routes of contamination are through surfaces, air, water, people and pests. Physical hazard could be pieces of glass, wood, metal, plastic, film, human hair and fingernails, plasters, jewellery, small personal belongings, pests, paper, cardboard etc.

    Raw material and product can be contaminated by biological objects like microorganisms and pests. Birds, insects and rodents are potentially a major contamination problem in bakeries. A preventive pest control program shall be maintained covering all areas of plant to minimize pest infestation. Production building should be designed to keep pests out. Ceilings and walls should be designed so that they do not allow insects to live there. During dosing, mixing, molding, cooling and slicing flour dust spreads easily through the air of bakery, therefore the cleaning and disinfecting of floors, walls and equipment is very important. Silos, ingredient dosing systems, mixers, curling chains, conveyor belts, cooling conveyors, packaging machines etc. should be properly cleaned to prevent any infestation outbreaks. In some bakeries the flour handling area is separated from the cooling and packaging area of the finished bread. Good hygienic design, maintenance and an effective cleaning program is very important support to the pest control program and help to prevent the contamination of raw material and product.

    Spoilage of most bakery products is caused mainly by moulds, yeast and seldom by bacteria. Reservoir of microbiological contamination can be ingredients, humans, inadequately cleaned equipment and utensils, air, water, packaging material etc.The most important ingredient of bakery products is flour. It has been estimated that flour contains approxi. 8000 mould spores in 1 g. Flour for instance can be contaminated by moulds and yeasts – species of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Eurotium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, bacteria – mainly of the Bacillus species, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Alcaligenes and mycotoxins – Alternaria toxins, Aflatoxins, Citrinin, Cyclopiazonic acid, Ochratoxin A, Viomelein, and Xanthomegnin. Other bakery ingredients may be also a source of microbial contamination.

    Most bakery products, in general, are not considered as high-risk food products because baking at relatively high temperatures is involved in their preparation. Many bakery products have reduced water activity (aw) and pH, which also prevent the growth of microbes. An average shelf life of bread is 3–5 days, but if the hygiene and sanitation of a bakery is poor, the shelf life of bread, especially some wheat bread, can be shorter. Preservatives, sourdough, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging, microwave, infrared radiation and ozone treatment are methods to control the microbial spoilage.

    To guarantee the safety of a product, good manufacturing practices (GMP) and good hygienic practices (GHP) should be followed.

  • Ozone treatment of raw materials

    FOOD SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT IN BAKERIES

    Helen Ehavald

    Fazer Bakeries AS, Tallinn, Estonia

    Bakery products are an important part of balanced diet. Wide variety of bakery products such as wheat loafs, rye breads, buns, coffee breads, cakes, cookies, pizza etc are produced and sold in supermarkets. The traditional strategic approach to food safety risk management in bakeries is to implement practices based upon food storage, cleaning and sanitation, pest control, personal hygiene, maintenance program etc. Food hygiene deals with ensuring that food is safe to eat and it should cover all aspects of processing, preparing, transport, handling or serving. It is vital throughout the whole food chain.Bakery products, like many processed foods, are subject to physical, chemical and biological spoilage. The main routes of contamination are through surfaces, air, water, people and pests. Physical hazard could be pieces of glass, wood, metal, plastic, film, human hair and fingernails, plasters, jewellery, small personal belongings, pests, paper, cardboard etc.

    Raw material and product can be contaminated by biological objects like microorganisms and pests. Birds, insects and rodents are potentially a major contamination problem in bakeries. A preventive pest control program shall be maintained covering all areas of plant to minimize pest infestation. Production building should be designed to keep pests out. Ceilings and walls should be designed so that they do not allow insects to live there. During dosing, mixing, molding, cooling and slicing flour dust spreads easily through the air of bakery, therefore the cleaning and disinfecting of floors, walls and equipment is very important. Silos, ingredient dosing systems, mixers, curling chains, conveyor belts, cooling conveyors, packaging machines etc. should be properly cleaned to prevent any infestation outbreaks. In some bakeries the flour handling area is separated from the cooling and packaging area of the finished bread. Good hygienic design, maintenance and an effective cleaning program is very important support to the pest control program and help to prevent the contamination of raw material and product.

    Spoilage of most bakery products is caused mainly by moulds, yeast and seldom by bacteria. Reservoir of microbiological contamination can be ingredients, humans, inadequately cleaned equipment and utensils, air, water, packaging material etc.The most important ingredient of bakery products is flour. It has been estimated that flour contains approxi. 8000 mould spores in 1 g. Flour for instance can be contaminated by moulds and yeasts – species of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Eurotium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, bacteria – mainly of the Bacillus species, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Alcaligenes and mycotoxins – Alternaria toxins, Aflatoxins, Citrinin, Cyclopiazonic acid, Ochratoxin A, Viomelein, and Xanthomegnin. Other bakery ingredients may be also a source of microbial contamination.

    Most bakery products, in general, are not considered as high-risk food products because baking at relatively high temperatures is involved in their preparation. Many bakery products have reduced water activity (aw) and pH, which also prevent the growth of microbes. An average shelf life of bread is 3–5 days, but if the hygiene and sanitation of a bakery is poor, the shelf life of bread, especially some wheat bread, can be shorter. Preservatives, sourdough, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging, microwave, infrared radiation and ozone treatment are methods to control the microbial spoilage.

    To guarantee the safety of a product, good manufacturing practices (GMP) and good hygienic practices (GHP) should be followed.

  • Container and packaging ozone disinfection

    FOOD SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT IN BAKERIES

    Helen Ehavald

    Fazer Bakeries AS, Tallinn, Estonia

    Bakery products are an important part of balanced diet. Wide variety of bakery products such as wheat loafs, rye breads, buns, coffee breads, cakes, cookies, pizza etc are produced and sold in supermarkets. The traditional strategic approach to food safety risk management in bakeries is to implement practices based upon food storage, cleaning and sanitation, pest control, personal hygiene, maintenance program etc. Food hygiene deals with ensuring that food is safe to eat and it should cover all aspects of processing, preparing, transport, handling or serving. It is vital throughout the whole food chain.Bakery products, like many processed foods, are subject to physical, chemical and biological spoilage. The main routes of contamination are through surfaces, air, water, people and pests. Physical hazard could be pieces of glass, wood, metal, plastic, film, human hair and fingernails, plasters, jewellery, small personal belongings, pests, paper, cardboard etc.

    Raw material and product can be contaminated by biological objects like microorganisms and pests. Birds, insects and rodents are potentially a major contamination problem in bakeries. A preventive pest control program shall be maintained covering all areas of plant to minimize pest infestation. Production building should be designed to keep pests out. Ceilings and walls should be designed so that they do not allow insects to live there. During dosing, mixing, molding, cooling and slicing flour dust spreads easily through the air of bakery, therefore the cleaning and disinfecting of floors, walls and equipment is very important. Silos, ingredient dosing systems, mixers, curling chains, conveyor belts, cooling conveyors, packaging machines etc. should be properly cleaned to prevent any infestation outbreaks. In some bakeries the flour handling area is separated from the cooling and packaging area of the finished bread. Good hygienic design, maintenance and an effective cleaning program is very important support to the pest control program and help to prevent the contamination of raw material and product.

    Spoilage of most bakery products is caused mainly by moulds, yeast and seldom by bacteria. Reservoir of microbiological contamination can be ingredients, humans, inadequately cleaned equipment and utensils, air, water, packaging material etc.The most important ingredient of bakery products is flour. It has been estimated that flour contains approxi. 8000 mould spores in 1 g. Flour for instance can be contaminated by moulds and yeasts – species of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Eurotium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, bacteria – mainly of the Bacillus species, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Alcaligenes and mycotoxins – Alternaria toxins, Aflatoxins, Citrinin, Cyclopiazonic acid, Ochratoxin A, Viomelein, and Xanthomegnin. Other bakery ingredients may be also a source of microbial contamination.

    Most bakery products, in general, are not considered as high-risk food products because baking at relatively high temperatures is involved in their preparation. Many bakery products have reduced water activity (aw) and pH, which also prevent the growth of microbes. An average shelf life of bread is 3–5 days, but if the hygiene and sanitation of a bakery is poor, the shelf life of bread, especially some wheat bread, can be shorter. Preservatives, sourdough, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging, microwave, infrared radiation and ozone treatment are methods to control the microbial spoilage.

    To guarantee the safety of a product, good manufacturing practices (GMP) and good hygienic practices (GHP) should be followed.

  • Staff and other utility rooms treatment with ozone

    FOOD SAFETY RISK MANAGEMENT IN BAKERIES

    Helen Ehavald

    Fazer Bakeries AS, Tallinn, Estonia

    Bakery products are an important part of balanced diet. Wide variety of bakery products such as wheat loafs, rye breads, buns, coffee breads, cakes, cookies, pizza etc are produced and sold in supermarkets. The traditional strategic approach to food safety risk management in bakeries is to implement practices based upon food storage, cleaning and sanitation, pest control, personal hygiene, maintenance program etc. Food hygiene deals with ensuring that food is safe to eat and it should cover all aspects of processing, preparing, transport, handling or serving. It is vital throughout the whole food chain.Bakery products, like many processed foods, are subject to physical, chemical and biological spoilage. The main routes of contamination are through surfaces, air, water, people and pests. Physical hazard could be pieces of glass, wood, metal, plastic, film, human hair and fingernails, plasters, jewellery, small personal belongings, pests, paper, cardboard etc.

    Raw material and product can be contaminated by biological objects like microorganisms and pests. Birds, insects and rodents are potentially a major contamination problem in bakeries. A preventive pest control program shall be maintained covering all areas of plant to minimize pest infestation. Production building should be designed to keep pests out. Ceilings and walls should be designed so that they do not allow insects to live there. During dosing, mixing, molding, cooling and slicing flour dust spreads easily through the air of bakery, therefore the cleaning and disinfecting of floors, walls and equipment is very important. Silos, ingredient dosing systems, mixers, curling chains, conveyor belts, cooling conveyors, packaging machines etc. should be properly cleaned to prevent any infestation outbreaks. In some bakeries the flour handling area is separated from the cooling and packaging area of the finished bread. Good hygienic design, maintenance and an effective cleaning program is very important support to the pest control program and help to prevent the contamination of raw material and product.

    Spoilage of most bakery products is caused mainly by moulds, yeast and seldom by bacteria. Reservoir of microbiological contamination can be ingredients, humans, inadequately cleaned equipment and utensils, air, water, packaging material etc.The most important ingredient of bakery products is flour. It has been estimated that flour contains approxi. 8000 mould spores in 1 g. Flour for instance can be contaminated by moulds and yeasts – species of the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Eurotium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, bacteria – mainly of the Bacillus species, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Alcaligenes and mycotoxins – Alternaria toxins, Aflatoxins, Citrinin, Cyclopiazonic acid, Ochratoxin A, Viomelein, and Xanthomegnin. Other bakery ingredients may be also a source of microbial contamination.

    Most bakery products, in general, are not considered as high-risk food products because baking at relatively high temperatures is involved in their preparation. Many bakery products have reduced water activity (aw) and pH, which also prevent the growth of microbes. An average shelf life of bread is 3–5 days, but if the hygiene and sanitation of a bakery is poor, the shelf life of bread, especially some wheat bread, can be shorter. Preservatives, sourdough, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging, microwave, infrared radiation and ozone treatment are methods to control the microbial spoilage.

    To guarantee the safety of a product, good manufacturing practices (GMP) and good hygienic practices (GHP) should be followed.

  • Grain silos disinfection with ozone

    Application of ozone in grain processing

    The patented Oxygreen_ processwas one of the most significant advances for application of ozone in food grains. This process involves a premoistening of grains in a closed batch reactor followed by ozonation. Similarly, patented a process to obtain flour with enhanced microbial safety from ozonated grains. Within the food industry, ozone is employed for fresh fruit and vegetable decontamination. However, a limited number of studies have been reported on ozone treatment of cereals and cereal-based products as an alternative to chlorine treatment.

    Ozone treatment of grain is generally applied in silos or vessels. Prior to ozone application, it is necessary to characterise the dynamics of ozone movement through the various grain types to optimise ozone generators for use on large commercial storage bins. Ozone moves through grain slowly because the gas reacts with the chemical constituents present in the outer layer of grain (seed coat). Diffusion of ozone into the grain depends upon the grain characteristics. Movement of ozone within a silo or column filled with grain can be in either of 3 directions (Figure); namely movement in the transverse direction (x,z) or movement in the vertical direction (y) under the influence of ozone gas velocity (vf) and adsorption of ozone by the grain surface and possible reactions leading to degradation of ozone. Adsorption of ozone and subsequent penetration into the grain depends upon several intrinsic and extrinsic factors (k) such as surface characteristics of the grain, microbial contamination, presence of insects and moisture content etc. Penetration and movement of ozone within a grain column can be expressed by the differential kinetic – diffusion equation.

    O3 generator

    Ozone movement through the grain layer is restricted by the highly reactive nature of ozone described the movement of ozone into two distinct phases for maize. The first phase is contact of ozone with grains during which the concentration of ozone reduces as it moves in the y direction through the grain due to interaction with organic materials present on or in the vicinity of the grain surface rapidly degrading ozone through oxidation reaction. Movement of ozone in phase 1 is restricted due to the ozone demand of the organic matter.

    The second phase corresponds to free movement of ozone through grain layers once these reactive sites are eliminated. Ozone adsorption in the grain layer depends on ozone concentration in the feed gas, duration of exposure, gas flow rate, temperature, grain characteristics and the presence of other organic matter such as insects and surface microbial status of the grain. Presence of moisture also plays an important role in ozone reactivity with grain because water solubilizes ozone and increase contact between gas and grain. Is observed slower ozone penetration between grain layers with higher mycological contamination.

  • Flour treatment with ozone

    Comparison Between Potassium Bromate and Ozone as Flour Oxidants in Breadmaking

    The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of potassium bromate with that of ozone treatment in wheat flour oxidation for breadmaking. In the first experiment, flour was treated with ozone at 1,500 ppm for 2, 4.5, 9, and 18 min. In the second experiment, flour was fully treated with ozone at 1,500 ppm for 45 min and then blended with control flour at concentrations of 10–30% (w/w). Flour became whiter and less yellow as ozonation time increased when compared to control flour. Size-exclusion HPLC detected an increase in SDS buffer insoluble polymeric proteins in flour exposed to ozone. Bread made from flour treated with ozone for 2–4.5 min and bread that was made from flour blended with fully ozonated flour at 5 and 10% (w/w) was not significantly different for specific volume when compared with bread made with flour containing potassium bromate. Bread made from flour treated with ozone for 2, 4.5, and 9 min had a greater number of cells in crumb with larger loaf volumes than control flour. Results indicate that ozone treatment of flour could eliminate the need for potassium bromate in breadmaking.

    January/February 2011, Volume 88, Number 1

    Pages 103-108

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-06-10-0085

  • Product storage ozone treatment

  • Container and packaging ozone disinfection

  • Staff and other utility rooms treatment with ozone

OTHER

HouseholdIndustryMedicineMunicipal economy

  • Air purification

  • Water purification

  • The ventilation system disinfection

  • Surface oxidation and treatment

  • Air purification

  • Water purification

  • Room, instrument disinfection

  • Ozone therapy

  • Water purification

  • Disinfection of water pipes

  • Odors, mold and virus destruction

Products storageTransportVeterinary SPA and swimming

  • Odors, mold and virus destruction

  • Ventilation system disinfection

  • Odor destruction

  • Disinfection cargo compartment

  • Room, instrument disinfection

  • Preparation processing

  • Water purification

  • Room disinfection

  • Ventilation system disinfection